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Table 1 Characteristics of participants with different nighttime duration

From: Daytime napping and successful aging among older adults in China: a cross-sectional study

 TOTAL
n (%)
Nighttime sleep duration (per night)
< 6 h
n (%)
6 to less than 8 h
n (%)
≥8 h
n (%)
Successful aging
 No6191 (86.1)2156 (87.9)2125 (83.0)1910 (87.7)
 Yes999 (13.9)296 (12.1)435 (17.0)268 (12.3)
Low probability of disease
 No3822 (51.2)1363 (53.3)1359 (51.5)1100 (48.4)
 Yes3647 (48.8)1195 (46.7)1281 (48.5)1171 (51.6)
No disease-related disability
 No566 (7.6)262 (10.3)159 (6.0)145 (6.4)
 Yes6884 (92.4)2289 (89.7)2475 (94.0)2120 (93.6)
High cognitive functioning
 No3303 (45.2)1253 (50.2)940 (36.2)1110 (50.2)
 Yes4000 (54.8)1243 (49.8)1657 (63.8)1100 (49.8)
High physical functioning
 No1480 (20.1)652 (25.9)413 (15.9)415 (18.5)
 Yes5883 (79.9)1866 (74.1)2190 (84.1)1827 (81.5)
Active engagement with life
 No3660 (49.0)1277 (49.9)1198 (45.4)1185 (52.2)
 Yes3809 (51.0)1281 (50.1)1442 (54.6)1086 (47.8)
Daytime napping (per day)
 0 min3012 (40.5)1220 (47.9)968 (36.8)824 (36.6)
 1–60 min2928 (39.4)926 (36.4)1149 (43.6)853 (37.9)
  > 60 min1493 (20.1)401 (15.7)517 (19.6)575 (25.5)
Sex
 Male3734 (50.0)1080 (42.2)1436 (54.4)1218 (53.6)
 Female3735 (50.0)1478 (57.8)1204 (45.6)1053 (46.4)
Age
 60–642791 (37.4)870 (34.0)1093 (41.4)828 (36.5)
 65–743451 (46.2)1212 (47.4)1211 (45.9)1028 (45.3)
  ≥ 751227 (16.4)476 (18.6)336 (12.7)415 (18.3)
Community type
 Rural5588 (76.0)1940 (77.1)1819 (70.3)1829 (81.5)
 Urban1761 (24.0)577 (22.9)770 (29.7)414 (18.5)
Education
 No formal education2428 (33.3)940 (37.5)702 (27.4)786 (35.5)
 Did not finish primary school1574 (21.6)541 (21.6)545 (21.2)488 (22.1)
 Sishu/Homeschool/Elementary school1745 (24.0)553 (22.1)658 (25.6)534 (24.2)
 Middle school and above1535 (21.1)471 (18.8)661 (25.8)403 (18.2)
Marital status
 Cohabited (married or not)5823 (78.0)1880 (73.5)2159 (81.8)1784 (78.6)
 Did not cohabit (Separated/divorced/widowed and never married)1646 (22.0)678 (26.5)481 (18.2)487 (21.4)
Annual household income
  ≤ 2000 CNY2474 (33.1)917 (35.8)777 (29.4)780 (34.3)
 2001–10,000 CNY1796 (24.1)657 (25.7)591 (22.4)548 (24.1)
 10,001–25,000 CNY1485 (19.9)483 (18.9)565 (21.4)437 (19.2)
  > 25,000 CNY1714 (22.9)501 (19.6)707 (26.8)506 (22.3)
Tobacco use
 No3942 (52.8)1466 (57.4)1325 (50.2)1151 (50.7)
 Yes3523 (47.2)1090 (42.6)1314 (49.8)1119 (49.3)
Alcohol consumption
 No5001 (67.0)1759 (68.8)1705 (64.6)1537 (67.7)
  < once a month550 (7.4)187 (7.3)218 (8.3)145 (6.4)
  ≥ once a month1915 (25.6)611 (23.9)716 (27.1)588 (25.9)
Physical activity
 No4280 (57.3)1482 (57.9)1487 (56.3)1311 (57.7)
 Yes3189 (42.7)1076 (42.1)1153 (43.7)960 (42.3)
Low quality of nighttime sleep
  < 1 day/week3805 (51.3)716 (28.1)1511 (57.6)1578 (70.1)
 1–2 days/week1008 (13.6)311 (12.2)421 (16.1)276 (12.3)
 3–4 days/week978 (13.2)436 (17.1)350 (13.3)192 (8.5)
 5–7 days/week1626 (21.9)1082 (42.5)340 (13.0)204 (9.1)
Body Mass Index
 Normal3857 (51.6)1357 (53.0)1333 (50.5)1167 (51.4)
 Underweight569 (7.7)209 (8.2)177 (6.7)183 (8.1)
 Overweight2249 (30.1)728 (28.5)832 (31.5)689 (30.3)
 Obesity794 (10.6)264 (10.3)298 (11.3)232 (10.2)
Nighttime sleep duration (per night)
  < 6 h2558 (34.3)
 6 to less than 8 h2640 (35.3)
  ≥ 8 h2271 (30.4)