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Table 3 Incidence of frailty among robust and prefrail persons in 2011, China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study

From: Incidence of frailty among community-dwelling older adults: a nationally representative profile in China

 Demographic characteristicsIncidence of frailty per 1000 person-years
N (%)Rate95% CI
Overall4939 (100%)60.654.268.0
Frailty at baseline***
 Robust2227 (45.1%)28.823.735.4
 Prefrail2712 (54.9%)86.676.498.6
Age groups (years)***
 60–642025 (41.0%)36.530.643.9
 65–691297 (26.3%)55.239.480.3
 70–74846 (17.2%)65.652.782.9
 75–79522 (10.6%)93.776.1116.7
 80–84190 (3.9%)152.2118.8198.4
 85+59 (1.2%)219.6154.0329.9
Sex***
 Male2542 (51.3%)52.545.760.6
 Female2407 (48.7%)69.158.682.1
Education***
 No formal education or illiterate1673 (33.9%)90.480.1102.3
 Did not finish elementary school a1057 (21.4%)63.452.277.7
 Elementary school b1255 (25.4%)52.836.779.3
 Middle school600 (12.2%)22.214.037.3
 High school or above c352 (7.2%)15.99.230.1
Annual household income***
  < 2160 Yuan1163 (25.0%)79.868.992.9
 2160–10,640 Yuan1163 (25.0%)57.247.969.0
 10,640–31,500 Yuan1166 (25.1%)40.432.750.7
  > 31,500 Yuan1159 (24.9%)44.929.273.0
Marital status**
 Married4000 (81.0%)56.148.964.6
 Widowed844 (17.1%)76.863.194.5
 Others d95 (1.9%)83.347.6161.5
Current residence***
 Urban1828 (37.0%)53.742.269.6
 Rural3111 (63.0%)65.959.473.2
Geographic region***
 Southeast China328 (6.6%)44.829.671.2
 East China243 (4.9%)51.433.582.9
 South Central China698 (14.1%)57.345.073.7
 Southwest China903 (18.3%)57.446.771.4
 Central China1128 (22.8%)65.959.473.2
 Northeast China332 (6.7%)67.645.8104.5
 Northern China545 (11.0%)71.056.690.2
 South China446 (9.0%)74.240.6152.6
 Northwest China316 (6.4%)93.070.8124.9
Number of chronic conditions*
 01282 (26.0%)46.738.357.6
 11463 (29.7%)46.938.757.3
 21081 (22.0%)46.737.858.4
 3+1099 (22.3%)78.259.2106.0
  1. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval
  2. a But capable of reading or writing
  3. b Including traditional Chinese school (i.e., Sishu)
  4. c Including graduate from high school, vocational school, college, or post-graduate
  5. d Including separated, divorced, and never married
  6. *** P < .001, ** P < .01, * P < .05 for comparison in incidence of frailty within each demographic variable