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Table 1 Sample characteristics (wave 2; n = 4655)

From: Meaning in life and health care use: findings from a nationally representative study of older adults in Germany

VariablesN (%) / Mean (SD)
Sex: - Male: N (%)2397 (51.5%)
– Female2258 (48.5%)
Age in years: Mean (SD)61.0 (12.0)
Family status: - Married, living together with spouse: N (%)3364 (72.3%)
– Married, living separated from spouse91 (2.0%)
– Divorced377 (8.1%)
– Widowed579 (12.4%)
– Single242 (5.2%)
Employment status: - Employed: N (%)1744 (37.5%)
– Retired2159 (46.4%)
– Other: not employed752 (16.1%)
Income (in Euro): Mean (SD)1455 (813)
Self-rated health (from 1 = very good to 5 = very bad): Mean (SD)2.5 (0.9)
Depressive symptoms: Mean (SD)7.5 (6.6)
Physical functioning: Mean (SD)83.5 (23.6)
Number of physical illnesses: Mean (SD)2.3 (1.9)
Meaning in life (from 1 = not at all to 5 = extremely): Mean (SD)4.1 (0.9)
GP visits in the past 12 months: Mean (SD)4.2 (3.7)
GP visits in the past 12 months: N (%)
 “Never”600 (12.9%)
 “Once”749 (16.1%)
 “2–3 times”1249 (26.8%)
 “4–6 times”1016 (21.8%)
 “7–12 times”782 (16.8%)
 “more often”259 (5.6%)
Specialist visits in the past 12 months: Mean (SD)3.4 (4.0)
  1. Notes: N = number; SD = standard deviation