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Table 1 Demographic data and risk factors of dysphagia in hip fracture patients ≥65 years of age

From: The prevalence, risk factors and prognostic implications of dysphagia in elderly patients undergoing hip fracture surgery in Korea

VariableTotalDysphagiaNon-dysphagic   
(N = 546)(n = 29)(n = 517)   
Mean (SD) or n (%)Mean (SD) or n (%)Mean (SD) or n (%)Chi-squareEffect sizeP
Age (years)80.3 (7.0)82.3 (6.0)80.1 (7.0) 0.3070.109
Gender (male/female)153/39314/15139/3786.2290.1080.013
BMI (kg/m2)22.1 (4.3)20.6 (3.6)22.2 (4.3) 0.3700.053
ASA classification ≥3295 (54.0%)23 (79.3%)272 (52.6%)7.8810.1200.005
Stroke90 (16.5%)9 (31.0%)81 (15.7%)4.7100.0930.030
Dementia86 (15.8%)8 (27.6%)78 (15.1%)3.2330.0770.072
Delirium38 (7.0%)5 (17.2%)33 (6.4%)5.0000.0960.025
Smoking28 (5.1%)5 (17.2%)23 (4.4%)9.8520.1340.002
Fracture type   1.7310.0560.188
 Femoral neck274 (50.2%)18 (62.1%)256 (49.5%) 
 Intertrochanteric272 (49.8%)11 (37.9%)261 (50.5%) 
Operation time (min)110.6 (24.1)116.8 (39.4)109.7 (22.9) 0.2980.122
Interval between injury and operation ≥2 days70 (12.8%)7 (24.1%)63 (12.2%)3.5100.0800.061
Method of anaesthesia   0.6800.0350.410
 General242 (44.3%)15 (51.7%)227 (43.9%)   
 Spinal304 (55.7%)14 (48.3%)290 (56.1%)   
Surgical technique   2.9760.0740.084
 Arthroplasty254 (46.5%)18 (62.1%)236 (45.6%)   
 Internal fixation292 (53.5%)11 (37.9%)281 (54.4%)   
Malnutrition (Albumin< 3.5 g/dL)110 (20.1%)14 (48.3%)96 (18.6%)15.6730.1200.005
Dehydration (BUN/creatinine > 20)355 (65.0%)21 (72.4%)334 (64.6%)0.9580.0420.391
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists; BUN, blood urea nitrogen
  2. P = Differences between patients with and without dysphagia
  3. To analyse categorical variables, the Chi square test was performed and the phi coefficient was calculated for the effect size
  4. To analyse continuous variables, te t-test was used and Cohen’s d was calculated for the effect size