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Table 1 Characteristics of Ischemic Stroke Patients in Singapore from 2011 to 2015, With and Without Recorded Modified Rankin Scores

From: Post-stroke patients with moderate function have the greatest risk of falls: a National Cohort Study

VariablesWith Rankin Score (n = 2255)Without Rankin Score (n = 19,569)p-value
FrequencyProportionFrequencyProportion
Age (mean, sd)66.6(12.8)67.7(13.3)< 0.001
Blood Sugar Level, mmol/L (mean, sd)8.9(4.47)9.2(4.67)0.014
Haemoglobin at Admission, g/dL (mean, sd)13.8(1.89)13.5(2.11)< 0.001
Gender    0.910
 Male131958.5%11,47258.6%
 Female93641.5%809741.4%
Ethnicity    0.436
 Chinese169074.9%14,85875.9%
 Malay38917.3%312015.9%
 Indian1466.5%13316.8%
 Others301.3%2601.3%
Smoking    0.005
 Non-smoker132158.6%11,22457.4%
 Ex-smoker28112.5%280014.3%
 Current-smoker62827.8%489325.0%
Diabetes Mellitus95042.1%851543.5%0.209
Hypertension183881.5%16,12282.4%0.301
Hyperlipidaemia205791.2%17,66890.4%0.154
Atrial Fibrillation45820.3%387419.8%0.562
History of TIA or Stroke32414.4%396320.3%< 0.001
Anti-platelet at discharge192085.1%16,21482.9%0.006
Anti-coagulant at discharge26611.8%16238.3%< 0.001
Discharge Home156369.3%11,09056.7%< 0.001
On Stroke Pathway211093.6%14,32773.2%< 0.001
Final Modified Rankin Score (n = 2324)
 045020.0%   
 151923.0%   
 237916.8%   
 335715.8%   
 438116.9%   
 51697.5%   
Deaths by December 2015934.1%405120.7%< 0.001
 Sustained a Fall before Death00.0%3491.8%< 0.001
 No Fall before Death934.1%370218.9%< 0.001
Low Falls, Total Number542.4%199610.2%< 0.001
Low Falls, By Rankin Score
 059.3%   
 11018.5%   
 21222.2%   
 31120.4%   
 41222.2%   
 547.4%   
Low Falls with a Recorded AIS of 3 or more in:*
 External Region (Skin, exc. burns)00.00%00.00%
 Face00.00%00.00%
 Head40.18%2391.22%< 0.001
Head† AIS ≥ 3On anti-platelet on discharge20.10%1040.64%0.001
On anti-coagulation on discharge00%140.86%0.24
On anti-platelet or anti-coagulation on discharge20.09%1140.66%< 0.001
Lower Extremities30.13%1350.69%< 0.001
Neck00.00%10.01%1.000
Spine10.04%190.10%0.715
Thorax00.00%100.05%0.613
Upper Extremities00.00%20.01%1.000
  1. * AIS: Abbreviated Injury Score; † proportion with denominator as number of persons on relevant anti-thrombotic treatment (i.e. anti-platelet, anticoagulant and either)