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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies for fall-induced injuries

From: The efficacy and safety of exercise for prevention of fall-related injuries in older people with different health conditions, and differing intervention protocols: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Authors Study design Ages (exercise, control) Participants Exercise intervention CP Control Cases (exercise, control)
Barnett, 2003 [32], Australia RCT; study duration: 1 yr 74.4 ± 4.9, 75.4 ± 6.0 163 older people 1 h weekly of structured exercise, including balance, coordination, aerobic capacity and muscle strength training, plus home exercise 62.2% Usual lifestyle 22, 28
Bischoff-Ferrari, 2010 [12], Switzerland RCT; study duration: 12 mos 83.4 ± 7.2, 85.1 ± 6.5 173 patients with acute hip fracture Daily 60 mins of balance and strength training during acute care, continuing the programme at home after discharge 69.0% Usual care 9, 16
Campbell, 1997 [17], New Zealand RCT; training for 1 yr, following-up for 2 yrs 83.4 ± 2.7, 84.3 ± 3.3 233 older women 30 mins of home-based programme of strength and balance retraining exercises, plus walking, 3 times per wk NS Usual activity levels 27, 43
El-Khoury, 2015 [19], France RCT; study duration: 2 yrs 79.8 ± 2.8, 79.6 ± 2.8 706 older women Weekly supervised progressive balance training, supplemented by six weekly individually prescribed home exercises NS No intervention 305, 397
Elley, 2008 [20], New Zealand RCT; study duration: 1 yr 80.4 ± 4.8, 81.1 ± 5.3 312 older people Daily strength and balance exercise NS Social visits 170, 156
Fitzharris, 2010 [21], Germany RCT; study duration: 3.8 mos 76.1 1090 older people Weekly strength and balance exercise class of 1 h for 15 weeks, supplemented by daily home exercises. NS No intervention 358, 446
Freiberger, 2012 [22], Germany RCT; training for 12 mos and following-up for 24 mos 76.1 ± 4.1 280 older people fallen in the past
6 months
1 h of strength and balance training, or plus strength training and balance exercises, or plus endurance training, 2 times per wk 84% No intervention 26, 35
Haines, 2009 [23], Australia RCT; study duration: 6 mos 80.9 ± 8.9, 80.5 ± 6.5 53 adults with gait instability Exercise programme combining lower limb strength and balance exercises NS Usual care 15, 32
Iliffe, 2014 [24], UK RCT; training for 6 mos, following-up for 1 yr 72.9 ± 6.1&72.8 ± 5.8, 73.1 ± 6.2 1256 older people Group exercise: 1 h of strength training, plus 2 times of walking per wk.; home exercise: 3 times per wk. of muscle strengthening and balance exercises plus 2 times of walking NS Usual lifestyle 111, 88
Iwamoto, 2009 [33], Japan RCT; study duration: 5 mos 74.6 ± 5.6, 78.2 ± 5.6 68 older people 30 mins of calisthenics, body balance training, muscle power training, and walking ability training, 3 times per wk 100% No intervention 0, 4
Kim, 2014 [25], Japan RCT; training for 3 mos, following-up for 1 yr 77.8 ± 4.2, 78.0 ± 4.2 105 older adults with a fall history 60 mins of muscle strength and balance training, 2 times per wk 75.3% No intervention 8, 13
Li, 2005 [34], US RCT; training for 26 wks, following-up for 1 yr 76.9 ± 4.7, 78.0 ± 5.1 256 older people 1 h of Tai Chi exercise, 3 times per wk 80.0% No intervention 7, 17
Luukinen, 2007 [26], Finland RCT; study duration: 2 yrs 88.0 ± 3.0, 88.0 ± 3.0 484 older people with a fall history 5–15 repetitions of daily home exercise or group exercise, including walking exercises or self-care exercises NS No intervention 39, 41
MacRae, 1994 [35], US RCT; study duration: 12 mos 72.4 ± 0.9, 70.0 ± 0.9 80 older people 1 h of strength and balance exercise, 3 times per wk NS Safety
Education
0, 3
Means, 2005 [27], US RCT; training for 6 wks, following-up for 6 mos 73.5 338 older people 90 mins of active stretching, postural control, endurance walking, and repetitive muscle co-ordination exercises NS No intervention 15, 21
Pang, 2018 [28], China RCT; 8-wk training and 6-mon follow-up 68.1 ± 9.0 vs 69.6 ± 10.8 84 stroke survivors 3 weekly 60-mins of balance and dynamic mobility training programme 93 Sham exercise 1, 6
Patil 2015 [29], Finland RCT; study duration: 2 yrs 74.4 ± 2.9, 74.0 ± 3.1 409 older women with a history of falls Twice weekly balance, weight bearing, strengthening, and functional exercises for the first 12 mos, and once weekly group and home exercise for remaining 12 mos 73% & 66% Usual physical activity 115, 111
Reinsch, 1992 [36], US RCT; study duration: 1 yr 73.3 ± 7.9, 75.9 ± 7.3 230 older people 1 h of stand-up/step-up exercises to improve strength and balance, 3 times per wk NS No intervention 11, 12
Robertson, 2001 [37], New Zealand RCT; study duration: 1 yr 80.8 ± 3.8, 81.1 ± 4.5 240 older people Muscle strengthening and balance exercise, 3 times a wk., plus a walking programme, 2 times a wk., training for 12 mos 71.0% Usual care 42, 49
Rosendahl, 2008 [38], Sweden RCT; training for 3 mos, following-up for 6 mos 85.3 ± 6.1, 84.2 ± 6.8 191 older people 29 sessions of progressively high intensity weight-bearing exercise to improve lower-limb strength, balance and gait ability NS The control activity program 64, 81
Schnelle, 2003 [39], US RCT; study duration: 8 mos 87.3 ± 8, 88.6 ± 6.7 190 older people 5 sessions of walking or repeating sit-to-stand up, 5 days per wk NS Usual care 13, 21
Smulders, 2010 [40], Netherlands RCT; training for 3 mos, following-up for 1 yr 70.5 ± 5.0, 71.6 ± 4.4 96 older people with fall history Weight-bearing and walking exercises, and gait correction and fall prevention training programmes 92.8% Usual lifestyle 20, 33
Taylor-Piliae, 2014 [30], US RCT; study duration: 12 wks 71.5 ± 10.3, 68.2 ± 10.3 145 survivors of stroke 1 h of Taichi exercise, 3 times per wk 82.0% Usual care 9, 13
Uusi-Rasi, 2015 [31], Finland RCT; Study duration: 2 yrs 74.8 ± 2.9, 73.8 ± 3.1 409 women with a history of fall Balance challenging, weight bearing, strengthening, and functional exercises, plus home-training program 72.8% Take placebo 12, 26
von Stengel, 2009 [41], Germany RCT; study duration: 18 mos 68.6 ± 3.0, 68.1 ± 2.7 151 postmenopausal women Resistance training, plus impact and aerobic weight-bearing exercises, 4 days per wk 75.0% Light physical exercises 17, 24
  1. yr(s) year(s); mo(s) month(s); wk(s) week(s); h(s) hour(s); min(s) minute(s); RM repetition; NS no statement; reps repetitions; CP compliance