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Table 2 Multivariate regression for DGI-2013 and components (2010) vs. TICS-m 2014 in the WELL study

From: Diet quality and cognitive function in mid-aged and older men and women

  Total (n = 617) Men (n = 302) Women (n = 315)
  B (95% CI) B (95% CI) B (95% CI)
DGI-2013
 Crude 0.03 (0.00, 0.05)* 0.02 (−0.01, 0.05) 0.01 (− 0.03, 0.04)
 Adjusted 0.00 (− 0.01, 0.03) 0.02 (− 0.01, 0.05) 0.00 (− 0.03, 0.04)
Dietary variety
 Crude 0.41 (0.14, 0.67)** 0.37 (− 0.04, 0.77) 0.30 (− 0.04, 0.65)
 Adjusted 0.28 (0.03, 0.52)* 0.31 (− 0.04, 0.65) 0.26 (− 0.06, 0.59)
Vegetable serves
 Crude 0.27 (−0.01, 0.56) 0.10 (−0.17, 0.38) 0.20 (− 0.27, 0.68)
 Adjusted 0.20 (−0.08, 0.47) 0.20 (− 0.08, 0.48) 0.27 (− 0.20, 0.74)
Fruit serves
 Crude 0.05 (−0.15, 0.25) 0.05 (−0.29, 0.39) − 0.16 (− 0.52, 0.20)
 Adjusted −0.06 (− 0.28, 0.17) 0.07 (− 0.24, 0.38) − 0.16 (− 0.53, 0.21)
Grain foods serves
 Crude −0.07 (− 0.40, 0.26) 0.07 (− 0.22, 0.36) −0.08 (− 0.55, 0.40)
 Adjusted − 0.05 (− 0.34, 0.25) 0.03 (− 0.26, 0.32) − 0.17 (− 0.59, 0.25)
Wholegrain bread
Crude
“I don’t eat bread/white bread” ref ref ref
“high fibre white/multigrain/other” 1.31 (0.37, 2.26)** 0.60 (− 0.44, 1.64) 1.92 (0.35, 3.49)*
“Wholemeal/rye” 0.28 (−0.77, 1.33) − 0.76 (−2.06, 0.54) 1.52 (0.09, 2.95)*
Adjusted    n = 311
“I don’t eat bread/white bread” ref ref refa
“high fibre white/multigrain/other” 0.87 (−0.05, 1.79) 0.46 (− 0.54, 1.47) 1.29 (− 0.08, 2.66)
“Wholemeal/rye” − 0.03 (− 1.06, 1.00) − 0.79 (− 2.11, 0.53) 0.95 (− 0.44, 2.34)
Meat and alternatives serves
 Crude 0.17 (− 0.15, 0.49) 0.23 (− 0.14, 0.60) 0.05 (− 0.29, 0.39)
 Adjusted 0.03 (− 0.27, 0.34) 0.17 (− 0.17, 0.52) − 0.03 (− 0.38, 0.31)
Dairy serves
 Crude 0.18 (− 0.06, 0.43) 0.13 (− 0.26, 0.52) 0.18 (− 0.23, 0.59)
 Adjusted 0.18 (− 0.06, 0.43) 0.11 (− 0.26, 0.47) 0.18 (− 0.21, 0.57)
Fluid serves
 Crude 0.08 (− 0.00, 0.16) 0.11 (− 0.02, 0.24) − 0.01 (− 0.13, 0.12)
 Adjusted 0.01 (− 0.06, 0.09) 0.06 (− 0.09, 0.20) − 0.03 (− 0.15, 0.09)
Discretionary foods serves
 Crude −0.04 (− 0.14, 0.07) 0.08 (− 0.04, 0.20) − 0.03 (− 0.19, 0.14)
 Adjusted 0.04 (− 0.06, 0.13) 0.07 (− 0.05, 0.19) −0.01 (− 0.17, 0.14)
Trimming fat from meat
Crude
“Never/rarely” ref ref ref
“Sometimes” 0.43 (− 1.29, 2.15) 0.37 (− 1.71, 2.44) 0.18 (−3.31, 3.67)
“Usually/always/I don’t eat meat” 1.11 (−0.50, 2.72) 0.64 (− 1.26, 2.55) 0.97 (− 1.93, 3.86)
Adjusted
“Never/rarely” ref ref ref
“Sometimes” −0.08 (−1.59, 1.42) − 0.02 (−2.08, 2.04) − 0.34 (−3.76, 3.07)
“Usually/always/I don’t eat meat” 0.37 (− 1.06, 1.81) 0.36 (− 1.53, 2.24) 0.34 (− 2.34, 3.02)
Type of milk drunk
Crude
“Whole” ref ref ref
“Don’t know/soy” 0.20 (−1.34, 1.74) −0.85 (−3.04, 1.34) 0.16 (−2.08, 2.41)
“I don’t drink milk/low fat/skim” 0.27 (−0.50, 1.04) −0.16 (−1.06, 0.75) 0.33 (− 1.13, 1.80)
Adjusted
“Whole” ref ref ref
“Don’t know/soy” −0.67 (−1.89, 0.54) −1.00 (−3.34, 1.33) −0.52 (−2.39, 1.35)
“I don’t drink milk/low fat/skim” −0.20 (− 0.99, 0.59) −0.14 (− 1.01, 0.72) −0.27 (− 1.80, 1.26)
Unsaturated fat oils and spreads serves
 Crude 0.31 (−0.03, 0.65) 0.34 (−0.01, 0.70) 0.26 (− 0.14, 0.65)
 Adjusted 0.19 (−0.15, 0.53) 0.26 (− 0.09, 0.60) 0.14 (− 0.28, 0.55)
Salt added after cooking
Crude
“Never” ref ref ref
“Sometimes” 0.50 (−0.19, 1.18) − 0.22 (−1.18, 0.73) 1.14 (0.26, 2.02)*
“Usually” −0.05 (−1.02, 0.92) − 0.64 (−2.00, 0.73) 0.75 (− 0.29, 1.79)
Adjusted n = 606   n = 310
“Never” refa ref refa
“Sometimes” 0.34 (−0.23, 0.91) 0.05 (− 0.99, 1.08) 0.98 (0.25, 1.71)*
“Usually” 0.23 (−0.72, 1.19) −0.18 (−1.58, 1.23) 0.63 (− 0.23, 1.49)
Salt added during cooking
Crude
“Never” ref ref ref
“Sometimes” 0.08 (− 0.61, 0.76) 0.44 (−0.60, 1.48) − 0.11 (−1.22, 0.99)
“Usually” −1.06 (−2.21, 0.09) − 1.35 (− 2.82, 0.12) −0.64 (− 2.23, 0.94)
“Don’t know” −2.23 (−4.78, 0.32) −1.52 (−4.04, 0.99) n/a
Adjusted
“Never” ref ref ref
“Sometimes” 0.12 (−0.54, 0.78) 0.26 (− 0.76, 1.28) 0.01 (−1.11, 1.14)
“Usually” −0.91 (−1.96, 0.14) −1.26 (−2.72, 0.21) −0.49 (− 1.96, 0.97)
“Don’t know” −1.60 (−4.31, 1.12) −1.51 (− 4.45, 1.44) n/a
High sugar food serves
 Crude −0.29 (− 0.52, − 0.06) −0.17 (− 0.41, 0.06) −0.25 (− 0.91, 0.40)
 Adjusted − 0.16 (− 0.35, 0.04) −0.15 (− 0.36, 0.05) −0.17 (− 0.73, 0.39)
Alcohol serves
 Crude 0.10 (−0.13, 0.34) 0.22 (0.01, 0.44)* 0.36 (−0.23, 0.94)
 Adjusted 0.23 (− 0.01, 0.46) 0.22 (−0.04, 0.47) 0.27 (− 0.24, 0.78)
  1. Adjusted for age (sex – total only) + education + urban/rural + clustering by postcode + total physical activity (T1)
  2. DGI-2013 Dietary Guideline Index, TICS-m Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status
  3. aResults presented with outliers removed, *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01