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Table 2 Attrition-weighted unadjusted and multivariable adjusted incidence rate ratios for the association between benzodiazepine and anticholinergic medication use and incident dementia

From: Anticholinergic and benzodiazepine medication use and risk of incident dementia: a UK cohort study

Exposure and pattern of use Dementia incidence Unadjusted IRR (95% CI) Adjustedb IRR (95% CI)
Cases Total %a
BZD use
 None 195 2819 9.0 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.)
 Any 25 227 14.5 1.61 (1.06,2.46) 1.06 (0.72,1.60)
  New 5 48 11.1 1.23 (0.51,2.96) 0.65 (0.27,1.60)
  Discontinuing 6 57 14.1 1.57 (0.74,3.35) 1.06 (0.53,2.14)
  Recurrent 14 122 16.0 1.78 (1.02,3.12) 1.30 (0.79,2.14)
ACB3 use
 None 198 2876 9.1 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.)
 Any 22 170 15.4 1.70 (1.09,2.65) 1.28 (0.82,2.00)
  New 5 60 7.9 0.88 (0.37,2.09) 0.87 (0.34,2.22)
  Discontinuing 5 40 20.1 2.22 (0.96,5.14) 1.19 (0.53,2.68)
  Recurrent 12 70 18.6 2.05 (1.18,3.56) 1.68 (1.00,2.82)
ACB3 subclass
 Not antidepressants 6 53 13.6 1.50 (0.68,3.32) 1.74 (0.84,3.62)
 Antidepressants 16 117 16.1 1.78 (1.06,2.98) 1.16 (0.69,1.94)
ACB1 or ACB2 use
 None 85 1438 8.3 1 (Ref.) 1 (Ref.)
 Any 135 1609 10.5 1.26 (0.95,1.67) 0.89 (0.68,1.17)
  New 34 355 12.8 1.54 (1.02,2.33) 1.14 (0.79,1.63)
  Discontinuing 11 220 5.6 0.68 (0.36,1.27) 0.36 (0.19,0.69)
  Recurrent 90 1033 10.7 1.29 (0.95,1.75) 0.95 (0.71,1.28)
ACB sum score
 Total ACB score (per point) 1.07 (1.03,1.13) 1.00 (0.94,1.06)
 ACB12 score (per point) 1.06 (1.00,1.13) 0.97 (0.90,1.04)
 ACB3 score (per point) 1.10 (1.02,1.19) 1.06 (0.98, 1.15)
  1. Abbreviations: IRR Attrition-weighted unadjusted incidence rate ratio, aIRR Attrition-weighted adjusted incidence rate ratio, CI confidence-interval, ACB Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden, ACB1 use of a medicine with an ACB score of 1. Scores correspond to possibly anticholinergic (score 1) probably anticholinergic (score 2) definitely anticholinergic (score 3)
  2. a% represents weighted incidence
  3. bAdjusted for sex, age, education (≤ 9 years, ≥ 10 years), social class (manual vs non manual), residential accommodation, centre of recruitment, study arm (screen or assessment), health conditions at Y0 or Y2 (stroke, Parkinson disease, epilepsy, sleep problems, anxiety, depression), self- reported health (excellent/good; fair/poor) at Y2, Disability at Y2 (no impairment, impairment in instrumental activities of daily living, or impairment in basic activities of daily living), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at Y2 (≤25, > 25), MMSE orientation sub-score at Y2 (< 9, 9/10), decrease in MMSE score between Y0 and Y2 (< 1, 1, 2,  ≥ 3 points), and self-perceived change in memory function between Y0 and Y2 (No change or better vs worse)
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