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Table 3 Models to predict post-stoke pneumonia

From: Braden scale for assessing pneumonia after acute ischaemic stroke

Author, year Study design No. of patients Predictors C-statistic
Kwon et al., 2006 [20] Retrospective cohort 286 Age, sex, NIHSS, dysphagia, mechanical ventilation NR
Sellars et al., 2007 [6] Retrospective cohort 412 Age, dysarthria, abbreviated mental test score, modified Rankin Scale score, and water swallowing test 0.90
Chumbler et al., 2010 [27] Retrospective cohort 925 Age, stroke severity, dysphagia, history of pneumonia, patient being ‘found down’ at symptom onset 0.78
Hoffmann et al., 2012 [24] Registry 15,336 Age, sex, stroke severity, dysphagia, atrial fibrillation 0.84
Ji et al., 2013 [25] Registry 8820 Age, history of atrial fibrillation, congestive heart failure, COPD, current smoking, restroke dependence, dysphagia, NIHSS, GCS, stroke subtype, blood glucose 0.79
Harms et al., 2013 [28] RCT 114 Age, GCS, systolic arterial blood pressure, WBC count 0.85
Smith et al., 2015 [26] Registry 11,551 Age, sex, NIHSS, prestrike independence 0.79
Kumar et al., 2017 [29] Retrospective cohort 1644 Age, congestive heart failure, dysarthria, dysphagia 0.82
Westendorp et al., 2018 [30] RCT 2538 Age, sex, pre-stroke disability, medical history of COPD, stroke severity, dysphagia, intracerebral haemorrhage 0.82
Ding et al., 2019 Retrospective cohort 414 Sensory perception, skin moisture, activity, mobility, nutrition, and friction and shear 0.88
  1. NIHSS National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, NR not reported, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, GCS Glasgow Coma Scale, RCT randomized controlled trial