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Table 5 Comparison for the characteristics of those participating only once in 2nd wave and others

From: Role of gait speed and grip strength in predicting 10-year cognitive decline among community-dwelling older people

  Maintain in 3rd wave n = 880 (80.3%) Only participation in 2nd wave n = 216 (19.7%) P value
Age (years) 68.8 ± 5.7 72.2 ± 5.5 < 0.001
Gender    0.049
 Male 461 (52.4%) 97 (44.9%)  
 Female 419 (47.6%) 119 (55.1%)  
Smoking status    0.712
 No smoking 735 (83.6%) 182 (84.7%)  
 Smoking 144 (16.4%) 33 (15.3%)  
Education 10.9 ± 2.6 10.3 ± 2.7 0.005
Marital status
 Single 174 (19.8%) 48 (22.2%) .422
 Married 706 (80.2%) 168 (77.8%)  
BMI (kg/m2) 22.8 ± 2.9 23.2 ± 3.6 0.110
TMIG-IC 4.9 ± 0.4 4.8 ± 0.6 0.211
Depressive symptoms   0.001
 Yes 79 (9.3%) 36 (17.6%)  
 No 774 (90.7%) 169 (82.4%)  
CCI
 MMSE 28.1 ± 1.6 27.7 ± 1.7 0.001
 DSST 43.7 ± 11.1 38.7 ± 10.7 < 0.001
  1. BMI body mass index, TMIG-IC Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence, CCI Charlson Comorbidity Index, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, DSST Digit Symbol Substitution Test