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Table 4 The association of baseline variables with frailty state worsening (n = 162)

From: Frailty state among Indonesian elderly: prevalence, associated factors, and frailty state transition

Variables

Frailty state transition

P-value

RR (95% CI)

Frailty state worsening [n (%)]

Frailty state improvement or constant [n (%)]

Age group

  ≥ 70 years

40 (33.6)

79 (66.4)

0.002

1.36 (1.16–1.59)

 60–69 years

4 (9.3)

39 (90.7)

  

Sex

 Female

26 (28)

67 (72)

0.79

1.04 (0.78–1.39)

 Male

18 (26.1)

51 (73.9)

  

Nutritional status

 At risk of malnutrition and malnourished

9 (34.6)

17 (65.4)

0.35

1.42 (0.68–2.95)

 Normal

35 (25.7)

101 (74.3)

  

Functional status (ADL)

 Dependent

14 (33.3)

28 (66.7)

0.29

1.34 (0.78–2.30)

 Independent

30 (25.0)

90 (75.0)

  

Mental status

 Strong probability of depression and indicative of depression

7 (58.3)

5 (41.7)

0.01

3.75 (1.25–11.21)

 Normal

37 (24.7)

113 (75.3)

  

Quality of life

 Negative

35 (33.7)

69 (66.3)

0.01

1.36 (1.09–1.68)

 Positive

9 (15.5)

49 (84.5)

  

Comorbidities (CIRS-G score)

  ≥ 5

40 (26.0)

114 (74.0)

0.14

0.94 (0.85–1.04)

  < 5

4 (50.0)

4 (50.0)

  

Polypharmacy (≥ 5 drugs)

 Yes

39 (29.3)

94 (70.7)

0.18

1.11 (0.96–1.28)

 No

5 (17.2)

24 (82.8)

  

Gait speed

 Slow (< 0.8 m/s)

19 (50.0)

19 (50.0)

0.00

2.68 (1.57–4.57)

 Normal (≥0.8 m/s)

25 (20.2)

99 (79.8)

  

Handgrip strength

 Low

34 (31.2)

75 (68.8)

0.09

1.22 (0.98–1.50)

 Normal

10 (18.9)

43 (81.1)