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Table 4 The association of baseline variables with frailty state worsening (n = 162)

From: Frailty state among Indonesian elderly: prevalence, associated factors, and frailty state transition

Variables Frailty state transition P-value RR (95% CI)
Frailty state worsening [n (%)] Frailty state improvement or constant [n (%)]
Age group
  ≥ 70 years 40 (33.6) 79 (66.4) 0.002 1.36 (1.16–1.59)
 60–69 years 4 (9.3) 39 (90.7)   
Sex
 Female 26 (28) 67 (72) 0.79 1.04 (0.78–1.39)
 Male 18 (26.1) 51 (73.9)   
Nutritional status
 At risk of malnutrition and malnourished 9 (34.6) 17 (65.4) 0.35 1.42 (0.68–2.95)
 Normal 35 (25.7) 101 (74.3)   
Functional status (ADL)
 Dependent 14 (33.3) 28 (66.7) 0.29 1.34 (0.78–2.30)
 Independent 30 (25.0) 90 (75.0)   
Mental status
 Strong probability of depression and indicative of depression 7 (58.3) 5 (41.7) 0.01 3.75 (1.25–11.21)
 Normal 37 (24.7) 113 (75.3)   
Quality of life
 Negative 35 (33.7) 69 (66.3) 0.01 1.36 (1.09–1.68)
 Positive 9 (15.5) 49 (84.5)   
Comorbidities (CIRS-G score)
  ≥ 5 40 (26.0) 114 (74.0) 0.14 0.94 (0.85–1.04)
  < 5 4 (50.0) 4 (50.0)   
Polypharmacy (≥ 5 drugs)
 Yes 39 (29.3) 94 (70.7) 0.18 1.11 (0.96–1.28)
 No 5 (17.2) 24 (82.8)   
Gait speed
 Slow (< 0.8 m/s) 19 (50.0) 19 (50.0) 0.00 2.68 (1.57–4.57)
 Normal (≥0.8 m/s) 25 (20.2) 99 (79.8)   
Handgrip strength
 Low 34 (31.2) 75 (68.8) 0.09 1.22 (0.98–1.50)
 Normal 10 (18.9) 43 (81.1)