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Table 4 Bivariate regression analysis and associated factors of DNOS of persons with dementia

From: Prevalence of dementia diagnoses not otherwise specified in eight European countries: a cross-sectional cohort study

  Dementia diagnosis when living at home Dementia diagnosis when living in a nursing home
DNOS n = 193 Othera n = 1021 OR CI 95% p value DNOS n = 170 Othera n = 620 OR CI 95% p value
Person with dementia
 Age, years, median (Q1; Q3) 84 (80; 88) 82 (78; 86) 1.048 1.023–1.074 < 0.001 85 (80; 90) 84 (80; 88) 1.026 0.999–1.055 0.061
 Gender, female % 66 63 1.163 0.840–1.608 0.363 75 74 1.053 0.714–1.555 0.793
 Symptoms, years (range) 4 (2; 6) 4 (2; 6) 0.978 0.931–1.028 0.381 3 (1; 5) 4 (2; 7) 0.907 0.849–0.969 0.004
Comorbidity (CCI), median (Q1; Q3), 0–37 2 (1; 3) 2 (1; 3) 0.050 2 (1; 3) 2 (1; 3) 0.994
Cognitive function (SMMSE), 0–30 15 (10; 19) 15 (10; 20) 0.987 0.963–1.011 0.284 13 (8; 17) 12 (7; 16) 1.023 0.992–1.055 0.154
Quality of life (QoL-AD), 13–52 34 (30; 38) 34 (30; 38) 0.996 0.965–1.027 0.789 33 (29; 36) 33 (28; 37) 0.996 0.962–1.030 0.802
Activities of daily living (Katz ADL), 0–6 3 (1; 5) 3 (2; 5) 0.098 2 (1; 3) 2 (1; 4) 0.397
Depression in dementia (CSDD), 0–38 8 (5; 13) 7(3; 12) 1.032 1.006–1.059 0.016 5 (2; 9) 2 (2; 9) 0.991 0.956–1.027 0.611
Resource utilization (RUD) last 30 days, %
 Hospital admission, geriatric ward 1 (1) 42 (2) 0.121 0.017–0.887 0.038 0 (0) 1 (1) 0.000 0.000 1.000
 Visit general practitioner 95 (48) 403 (40) 1.487 1.092–2.024 0.012 73 (43) 93 (47) 0.840 0.597–1.183 0.840
 Visit geriatrician 5 (3) 75 (7) 0.335 0.134–0.841 0.020 17 (10) 55 (9) 1.139 0.643–2.020 0.655
 Visit neurologist 14 (7) 44 (4) 1.737 0.932–3.235 0.082 30 (18) 43 (7) 2.875 1.741–4.748 < 0.001
 Visit psychiatrist 2 (1) 2 (4) 0.435 0.102–1.856 0.261 8 (5) 27 (4) 1.083 0.483–2.429 0.847
Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPI-Q)
 Severity, 0–36 10 (6; 15) 8 (5; 14) 1.028 1.004–1.052 0.021 5 (2; 9) 6 (3; 11) 0.969 0.939–0.999 0.043
Psychotropics, n (%) 112 (58) 814 (80) 0.352 0.254–0.486 < 0.001 122 (72) 513 (83) 0.702 0.493–0.998 0.049
 Antipsychotics 56 (29) 241 (24) 1.323 0.939–1.864 0.110 68 (40) 228 (37) 1.146 0.810–1.623 0.442
 Anxiolytic 19 (10) 173 (17) 0.535 0.324–0.883 0.014 25 (15) 190 (31) 0.390 0.247–0.617 < 0.001
 Sedatives 14 (7) 136 (13) 0.509 0.287–0.903 0.021 24 (14) 143 (23) 0.548 0.343–0.878 0.012
 Antidepressants 29 (15) 330 (32) 0.370 0.244–0.561 < 0.001 44 (26) 175 (28) 0.888 0.604–1.305 0.546
 Anti-dementia medication 43 (22) 585 (57) 0.214 0.149–0.307 < 0.001 37 (22) 271 (44) 0.358 0.241–0.533 < 0.001
  1. Italicized values indicates a positive result, e.g., 0–36
  2. p ≤ 0.05 was regarded as significant; significant p-values are marked in bold
  3. AD Alzheimer’s disease, CCI Charlson comorbidity index, CI Confidence interval, CSDD Cornell scale for depression in dementia, FTD Frontotemporal dementia, Katz-ADL Katz index of independence in activities of daily living, LBD Lewy body dementia, n Number of participants, NL The Netherlands, NPI-Q Neuropsychiatric inventory questionnaire, OR Odds ratio, Q1 First quartile, Q3 Third quartile, QoL-AD Quality of life in AD, RUD Resource utilization in dementia questionnaire, SD Standard deviation, SMMSE Standardized mini-mental state, UK United Kingdom, VaD Vascular dementia
  4. aAD, AD/VaD/FTD/LBD/other