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Table 1 Characteristics of 2600 participants according to MoCA scores

From: Joint associations of smartphone use and gender on multidimensional cognitive health among community-dwelling older adults: a cross-sectional study

  N(%) MoCA scorea
Overall   21.98 ± 4.61
Age (yr)
 60~ 1558 (59.92) 22.69 ± 4.39
 70~ 779 (29.96) 21.55 ± 4.72
 80~ 263 (10.12) 19.01 ± 4.27
Gender
 men 1401 (53.88) 22.79 ± 4.31
 women 1199 (46.12) 21.03 ± 4.78
Marital status
 unmarried 630 (25.45) 20.35 ± 4.56
 married 1845 (74.55) 22.58 ± 4.49
Region
 rural 1180 (45.38) 20.77 ± 4.47
 urban 1420 (54.62) 22.98 ± 4.49
Occupation
 manual 1674 (64.51) 20.99 ± 4.57
 non-manual 921 (35.49) 23.76 ± 4.13
Income
 income < expenditure 408 (15.81) 20.62 ± 4.67
 income = expenditure 1797 (69.62) 22.07 ± 4.53
 income > expenditure 376 (14.57) 23.03 ± 4.59
Education level
 illiterate 655 (25.22) 17.98 ± 3.84
 primary 933 (35.93) 22.06 ± 4.18
 secondary and above 1009 (38.85) 24.49 ± 3.52
Smoking
 never smoke 1602 (62.38) 21.66 ± 4.73
 previous smoke 177 (6.89) 22.76 ± 4.15
 current smoke 789 (30.72) 22.46 ± 4.45
Drinking
 never drink 2050 (79.49) 21.73 ± 4.65
 previous drink 106 (4.11) 22.43 ± 4.60
 current drink 423 (16.40) 23.11 ± 4.30
Hypertension
 no 1665 (64.96) 21.95 ± 4.58
 yes 898 (35.04) 22.05 ± 4.68
Diabetes
 no 2271 (89.34) 21.97 ± 4.63
 yes 271 (10.66) 22.06 ± 4.57
Depression
 no 2273 (90.13) 22.26 ± 4.57
 yes 249 (9.87) 19.74 ± 4.43
  1. Note: The MoCA scorea has been adjusted according to the years of education