Skip to main content

Table 2 Factors associated with nutritional status (at risk or malnourished vs normal) (n = 613)

From: Malnutrition risks and their associated factors among home-living older Chinese adults in Hong Kong: hidden problems in an affluent Chinese community

  Univariate analysis Multivariable analysis
ORU 95% CI p ORA 95% CI p
Lower Upper Lower Upper
Socio-demographic characteristics
 Received CSSA
  No (ref) 1     NS    
  Yes 1.46 1.01 2.09 0.042     
Lifestyle characteristics
 Smoking status
  Non-smoker (ref) 1     NS    
  Ex-smoker 0.68 0.40 1.14 0.145     
  Current smoker 1.57 0.92 2.68 0.097     
 Level of physical activity (IPAQ-SF)
  Low (ref) 1     NS    
  Moderate 0.56 0.34 0.92 0.023     
  High 0.40 0.23 0.69 0.001     
Health status
 Total CCI score
  0 (ref) 1     NS    
  1 1.02 0.67 1.54 0.932     
  2 1.93 1.08 3.44 0.027     
  ≥ 3 1.65 0.93 2.94 0.088     
 Hearing ability
  Clear (ref) 1     NS    
  Fair 1.48 0.99 2.21 0.058     
  Unclear 2.75 1.68 4.50 < 0.001     
 Visual ability
  Clear (ref) 1     1    
  Fair 1.96 1.28 2.99 0.002 1.71 1.09 2.67 0.020
  Unclear 3.31 2.12 5.17 < 0.001 2.71 1.68 4.35 < 0.001
 Difficulty in chewing food
  No (ref) 1     NS    
  Yes 1.45 1.02 2.07 0.038     
 Usual appetite
  Normal (ref) 1     1    
  Good 0.34 0.24 0.50 < 0.001 0.38 0.26 0.56 < 0.001
  Bad 5.17 2.25 11.91 < 0.001 4.52 1.92 10.62 < 0.001
Dietary factors
 Below recommendation of the dietary guidelinesa:
 Grains (3 to 5 bowls per day)
  No (ref) 1     NS    
  Yes 1.63 1.13 2.34 0.009     
 Vegetables (at least 3 servings per day)
  No (ref) 1     NS    
  Yes 1.69 1.02 2.80 0.043     
 Fruits (at least 2 servings per day)
  No (ref) 1     NS    
  Yes 1.78 1.17 2.71 0.008     
 Usually cooking food myself
  No (ref) 1     NS    
  Yes 0.76 0.50 1.16 0.203     
 Dietary supplements consumption
  No (ref) 1     NS    
  Yes 0.81 0.56 1.16 0.248     
 Dietary behaviour
  Favour food group
   No preference (ref) 1     NS    
   Grains 0.66 0.35 1.23 0.192     
   Vegetables 0.38 0.20 0.73 0.003     
   Fruits 0.34 0.16 0.75 0.007     
   Meats 0.50 0.27 0.96 0.038     
   Others (milk/fat/salt/sugar) 0.63 0.11 3.71 0.605     
  Usual number of main meals skipped per day
   None (ref) 1     1    
   One or more 2.26 1.47 3.48 < 0.001 2.03 1.27 3.25 0.003
  Preferred temperature of food and drink
   Warm (ref) 1     NS    
   Hot 1.48 1.03 2.12 0.034     
   Cold 0.88 0.31 2.46 0.801     
  1. CCI Charlson comorbidity index, IPAQ-SF the international physical activity questionnaire – short form, NE not entered into multivariable analysis, NS not statistically significant in multivariable analysis, ORA odds ratio adjusted for other significant factors obtained from backward stepwise logistic regression analysis using variables with p-value < 0.25 in univariate analysis as candidate variables, ORU univariate odds ratio, ref Reference group of the categorical variable
  2. aThe dietary guidelines were based on the serving size recommendation in the Healthy Eating Food Pyramid for Elderly, developed by Department of Health, Hong Kong [47]. The five major food groups include grains (e.g. rice, noodles, starchy vegetables, bread and oat meals), vegetables (e.g. leafy vegetables, melon, mushroom), fruits (e.g. apple, banana, dried fruits), meats (e.g. beef, fish, egg) and milk (e.g. cow milk, yogurt, cheese) [46]. One bowl equals to 250-300 ml, one serving of vegetable equals to half bowl of cooked vegetables, one serving of fruit equals to one medium-sized fruit, one tael of meats equals to meats with the size of a table tennis ball and one glass equals to 240 ml [47]