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Table 3 Comparison of measured parameters according to depression status

From: Handgrip strength, depression, and all-cause mortality in Korean older adults

  Depression status
Men   Women  
Not-depressed Depressed P value Not-depressed Depressed P value
N 4816 1180   5664 2241  
Age (years) 68.15 ± 6.24 70.61 ± 7.23 < 0.001 69.33 ± 7.07 72.51 ± 7.57 < 0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 23.44 ± 2.84 23.00.03 ± 3.27 0.004 24.20 ± 3.34 24.14 ± 3.64 0.047
aEducation, n (%)
 0–3 years 471 (9.8) 234 (19.8) < 0.001 1915 (33.8) 1216 (54.2) < 0.001
 4–6 years 1478 (30.7) 412 (34.9) 2113 (37.3) 674 (30.0)
  ≥ 7 years 2787 (57.9) 500 (42.4) 1478 (26.1) 278 (12.4)
Income (10,000 won) 188.41 ± 206.03 122.72 ± 133.09 < 0.001 155.01 ± 1188.88 102.76 ± 122.40 < 0.001
Marital status, n (%)
 Single/married not living with anyone 226 (4.7) 131 (11.1) < 0.001 1208 (21.3) 767 (34.2) < 0.001
 Married/living with someone 4590 (95.3) 1050 (88.9) 4456 (78.7) 1474 (65.8)
Past/current smokers, n (%) 3228 (67.0) 906 (76.8) < 0.001 250 (4.4) 233 (10.4) < 0.001
bAlcohol consumption, n (%)
 No drinking 1879 (39.0) 627 (53.1) < 0.001 4396 (77.6) 1833 (81.8) < 0.001
 two times a week (or more) 1691 (35.1) 327 (27.7) 265 (4.7) 110 (4.9)  
Nutrition score 2.25 ± 2.54 5.21 ± 3.54 < 0.001 2.60 ± 2.79 5.56 ± 3.55 < 0.001
Number of comorbidity 1.31 ± 1.27 1.91 ± 1.44 < 0.001 1.87 ± 1.52 2.52 ± 1.60 < 0.001
K-ADL (score) 7.08 ± 0.58 7.65 ± 1.91 < 0.001 7.09 ± 0.57 7.40 ± 1.40 < 0.001
SGDS-K (score) 2.21 ± 2.33 10.94 ± 2.23 < 0.001 2.87 ± 2.53 11.06 ± 2.23 < 0.001
MMSE-KC (score) 26.21 ± 3.01 23.72 ± 4.46 < 0.001 23.95 ± 4.05 20.90 ± 4.93 < 0.001
Death, n (%) 249 (5.2) 181 (15.3) < 0.001 144 (2.5) 122 (5.4) < 0.001
Absolute Handgrip strength (kg) 32.12 ± 7.15 27.30 ± 8.01 < 0.001 19.98 ± 5.12 16.94 ± 5.04 < 0.001
Relative Handgrip strength (kg/BMI) 2.66 ± 0.61 2.32 ± 0.70 < 0.001 1.59 ± 0.44 1.36 ± 0.44 < 0.001
Physical activity (Mets/week) 2122.6 ± 2148.0 1079.2 ± 1242.7 < 0.001 1418.7 ± 1684.8 907.2 ± 1242.7 < 0.001
  1. For continuous variables, values are mean; BMI Body mass index, K-ADL Korean Activities of Daily Living, MMSE-KC Korean version of mini-mental state examination, SGDS-K Korean version of 15-item geriatric depression scale. aMen with no depression (n = 80) and depression (n = 34) and women with no depression (n = 156) and depression (n = 73) had no data available. bMen with no depression (n = 1246) and depression (n = 226) and women with no depression (n = 1003) and depression (n = 298) had no data available