Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 2 Factors associated with sarcopenia using univariate analysis

From: Prevalence of and factors associated with sarcopenia among multi-ethnic ambulatory older Asians with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a primary care setting

Characteristic Crude Odds Ratio (95% CI) P value
Age, years 1.15 (1.10–1.20) < 0.001
Gender
 Men 1
 Women 1.82 (1.16–2.86) 0.009
Ethnicity
 Malay/ Indian/ Others 1
 Chinese 2.08 (1.22–3.53) 0.007
Physical Activity level
 Done light house work in past 1 week
  No 1  
  Yes 1.75 (1.02–3.03) 0.043
 Done heavy house work in past 1 week
  No 1  
  Yes 1.45 (0.93–2.27) 0.105
 Worked for pay/volunteer in past 1 week
  No 1  
  Yes 2.00 (1.25–3.13) 0.004
 Vigorous activity, min/day 0.95 (0.87–1.04) 0.292
 Moderate activity, min/day 1.01 (1.00–1.01) 0.685
 Walking, min/day 0.99 (0.99–1.00) 0.468
 Sitting, min/day 0.99 (0.99–0.99) 0.005
Dietary protein intake
 Legumes/Lentils, number of meals 0.58 (0.37–0.91) 0.018
 Meat/Seafood/Eggs, number of meals 1.40 (1.01–1.93) 0.041
 Nuts/Soy, number of meals 1.16 (0.86–1.57) 0.321
 Dairy products, number of meals 1.25 (0.92–1.68) 0.148
 Other sources of protein, number of meals 0.66 (0.07–5.97) 0.711
Social demographics
 Married
  Yes 1  
  No 1.67 (0.95–2.86) 0.071
 Highest qualification (Secondary level & above)
  No 1  
  Yes 0.63 (0.38–1.04) 0.07
 Medical subsidy (CHAS card holder)
  No 1  
  Yes 0.93 (0.56–1.55) 0.792
Lifestyle factors
 Current smoker
  No 1  
  Yes 0.44 (0.15–1.30) 0.138
 Regular alcohol use
  No 1  
  Yes 0.43 (0.10–1.96) 0.276
 Use of supplements/ complementary medicines
  No 1  
  Yes 1.34 (0.86–2.10) 0.199
BMI, kg/m2 0.76 (0.70–0.83) < 0.001
Waist Circumference, cm 0.92 (0.90–0.95) < 0.001
Hip Circumference, cm 0.87 (0.83–0.90) < 0.001
Waist/hip ratio 0.08 (0.00–4.77) 0.224
Systolic BP, mmHg 1.01 (1.00–1.02) 0.084
Diastolic BP, mmHg 0.98 (0.95–1.00) 0.042
HbA1C, % 0.81 (0.63–1.04) 0.093
Years of Diabetes 1.04 (1.01–1.07) 0.013
Diabetic nephropathy
 No 1  
 Yes 1.99 (1.16–3.41) 0.013
Lipid profile  
 Total Cholesterol, mmol/L 0.89 (0.67–1.19) 0.444
 HDL, mmol/L 1.76 (0.95–3.26) 0.07
 LDL, mmol/L 0.78 (0.54–1.12) 0.18
 TG, mmol/L 0.79 (0.55–1.14) 0.21
Number of polyclinic visits with doctors last year 0.78 (0.64–0.95) 0.013
Chronic illnesses
 Chronic Kidney Disease
  No 1
  Yes 1.76 (1.01–3.06) 0.047
 Anaemia
  No 1
  Yes 2.73 (1.30–5.74) 0.008
 Hypertension
  No 1
  Yes 1.31 (0.64–2.67) 0.459
 Hyperlipidemia
  No 1
  Yes 0.49 (0.17–1.44) 0.195
 Ischemic Heart Disease
  No 1
  Yes 1.70 (0.99–2.91) 0.053
Total number of medical conditions 1.22 (1.06–1.39) 0.005
Total number of long term medications 1.03 (0.94–1.12) 0.566