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Table 3 Outcomes and significant results

From: Trained volunteers to support chronically ill, multimorbid elderly between hospital and domesticity – a systematic review of one-on-one-intervention types, effects, and underlying training concepts

Outcome Study Outcome (original title) Instrumenta Mean (standard deviation) / sample size (percent) at baseline BL-Postinterventionb BL-Follow up (3 months)c
Diff. d p Diff. d p
Psychosocial–coordinative support
 Anxiety White et al. 2012 [111] Anxiety HADS (≥8) IG 60(20%) <.01    
CG 53(16%)       
 (Health-related) Quality of life Philippi et al. 2015 [108, 109, 112, 130] Social participation \(prevalence) LLFDI-K IG 3.1(0.7)     + 0.2 .33 .002
CG 3.3(0.6)       
 Use of services White et al. 2012 [111] Use of services Counting IG 1.1(1.2) -1,2 −1.0 <.001    
CG 1.9(1.2)       
 Further outcomes White et al. 2012 [111] Colorectal symptoms CCSC IG 3.0(2.0) + 0.3 .14 .02    
CG 2.7(2.1)       
Philippi et al. 2015 [108, 109, 112, 130] Self-efficacy expectation S-JS IG 2.7(0.7)     + 0.2 .33 .032
CG 2.8(0.6)       
Need for support MOS-SS IG (−)71.8% .022 .022
CG (−)47.7%       
Physical–cognitive activation
 Anxiety Haider et al. 2017 [113,114,115,116, 127] Fear of falling FES-I IG 44.1(13.07) + 3.9 .34 .016    
CG 41.4(12.07)       
 (Health related) Quality of life Haider et al. 2017 [113,114,115,116, 127] Activities WHOQOL-OLD IG 49.7(16.3) .039    
CG 53.8(14.3)       
Etkin et al. 2006 [117] Social functioning. SF-20 IG 62.8(−) + 11.4 .003    
Stolee et al. 2012 [119] QOL (outside) QOL-Scale IG 69.6(29.2) + 7.9 .26 .001    
QOL (at home) QOL-Scale IG 51.2(33.3) + 10.0 .30 .009    
 Physical functioning Haider et al. 2017 [113,114,115,116, 127] Physical activity PASE IG 33.8(37.1) + 13.8 .44 <.001    
CG 31.7(31.7)       
Physical performance SPPB IG 5.2(2.9) + 0.9 .32 .044    
CG 4.8(2.8)       
Stolee et al. 2012 [119] Balance confidence ABC-Scale IG 44.1(19.9) + 6.6 .33 .02    
Chair stand SFTM IG 4.95(2.7) + 2.0 .74 <.001    
Reaching forward SFTM IG 5.7(3.2) + 1.6 .05 .028    
Assistance with medication intake
 Use of services Sales 2013 [121] Readmission for heart failure (overall) Counting IG 12% ARR .04    
CG      
 Further outcomes Sales 2013 [121] Composite endpoints (overall) Counting IG 25% ARR .02    
Wang et al. 2013 [120] Knowledge KAB-MS IG 5.6(1.6) + 0.8 .28 .012    
CG 4.8(2.9)       
Behavior KAB-MS         
- when you get medication   IG .013    
CG       
- Before you take medication   IG .003    
CG       
- Caring for surplus medications   IG .025    
CG       
  1. a Further information on the instruments can be found in the original studies; b effect from the beginning of treatment until the end of treatment; c effect from the beginning of treatment until three months after the end of treatment; ABC-Scale Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale, ARR absolute risk reduction, CCSC Colorectal Cancer Symptoms Checklist, CG control group, d Effect size Cohen’s d, Diff Mean Difference, FES-I Falls Efficacy Scale – International, HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, IG intervention group, KAB-MS Knowledge, Attitude, Behavior Medication Safety questionnaire, LLFDI-K Late Life Function and Disability Instrument – Short version, MOS-SS Medical Outcome Study Social Support Scale, p Significance p, PASE Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly, QOL-Scale Quality of life scale, SF-20 Short-Form-Health Survey, 20 Items, SFTM Senior Fitness Test Manual, S-JS General self-efficacy, Jerusalem & Schwarzer (1986), SPPB Short Physical Performance Battery, WHOQOL-OLD World Health Organization Quality of Life for 60+