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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study sample stratified by mortality status at 1 September 2011

From: Relative importance of four functional measures as predictors of 15-year mortality in the older Dutch population

  Total Survivor Non-survivor P
No. of subjects 1505 474 1031  
Age 76.0 ± 6.6 71.2 ± 4.7 78.1 ± 6.3 < 0.001
Gender     < 0.001
 male 727 177 (24.3) 550 (75.7)  
 female 778 297 (38.2) 481 (61.8)  
Urbanicity level     0.003
 Not (< 500 addresses/km2) 280 96 (34.3) 184 (65.7)  
 Little (500–1000) 325 118 (36.3) 207 (63.7)  
 Somewhat (1000-1500) 154 55 (35.7) 99 (64.3)  
 Highly (1500–2500) 367 104 (28.3) 263 (71.7)  
 Very highly (> 2500) 378 101 (26.7) 277 (73.3)  
Education level
 - Years 8.9 ± 3.3 9.1 ± 3.2 8.8 ± 3.4 0.038
Living with partner
 - Yes 809 299 (37.0) 510 (63.0)  
 - No 696 175 (25.1) 521 (74.9) < 0.001
Smoking     < 0.001
 - Never 537 203 (37.8) 334 (62.2)  
 - Former 678 218 (32.2) 468 (67.8)  
 - Current 288 53 (18.4) 235 (81.6)  
Alcohol use     0.004
 - None 386 96 (24.9) 290 (75.1)  
 - Light 746 264 (35.4) 482 (64.6)  
 - Moderate 283 89 (31.4) 194 (68.6)  
 - (Very) Excessive 87 25 (28.7) 62 (71.3)  
BMI     0.011
 - Underweight (< 20) 57 7 (12.3) 50 (87.7)  
 - Normal (20–24) 451 154 (34.1) 297 (65.9)  
 - Overweight (25–29) 662 214 (32.3) 448 (67.7)  
 - Obese (> 30) 307 97 (31.6) 210 (68.1)  
 No. of chronic diseases 1.7 ± 1.3 1.5 ± 1.1 1.9 ± 1.3 < 0.001
MMSE score     < 0.001
 ≤23 208 12 (5.8) 196 (94.2)  
 ≥24 1293 462 (35.7) 831 (64.3)  
Lower-body performance score (0–12) 7.1 ± 3.3 8.6 ± 2.5 6.4 ± 3.4 < 0.001
Walk test (0–4) 2.4 ± 1.2 2.9 ± 1.1 2.2 ± 1.2 < 0.001
Chair stand test (0–4) 1.9 ± 0.8 2.1 ± 0.8 1.8 ± 0.8 < 0.001
Tandem stand (0–4) 2.4 ± 0.9 2.7 ± 0.6 2.2 ± 0.9 < 0.001
Handgrip strength (kg) 29.0 ± 10.3 30.5 ± 9.8 28.3 ± 10.4 < 0.001
Peak flow (60-780 ml) 373 ± 126 417 ± 117 353 ± 125 < 0.001
Functional limitation score (6–30) a 26.3 ± 5.1 28.2 ± 3.2 25.5 ± 5.6 < 0.001
  1. Continuous variables are expressed as mean (S.D.) for normally distributed variables or median (interquartile range) for skewed variablesa. Categorical variables are listed in numbers (%).X2 is used for categorical variables, independent T-test for continuous variables with a normal distribution and Mann-Whitney-U for skewed variables