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Table 3 Participants taking renal risk drugs (requiring dose adjustment or drug that should be avoided; total number of subjects 4514)

From: Use of renal risk drugs in a nation-wide Polish older adult population: an analysis of PolSenior database

Name of drug Total population;
n (%)
CC sMDRD Appropriate by sMDRD but inappropriate by CC (n; % of all patients taking particular drug)
Potentially inappropriate use;
n (% of subjects with CC below level indicated in recommendations)
Renally appropriate use;
n (% of subjects with CC above level indicated in recommendations)
Potentially inappropriate use; % of all patients taking particular drug Potentially inappropriate use;
n (% of subjects with sMDRD below level indicated in recommendations)
Renally appropriate use;
n (% of subjects with sMDRD above level indicated in recommendations)
Potentially inappropriate use; % of all patients taking particular drug
Drugs that should be avoided
 Metoclopramide 20 (0.44) 4 (0.74) 16 (0.40) 20.00% 1 (0.62) 19 (0.44) 5.00% 3 (15.0)
 Metformin 292 (6.47) 64 (3.69)* 228 (8.20) 21.92% 59 (6.90) 233 (6.37) 20.20% 24 (8.2)
 Acarbose 39 (0.86) 2 (2.00) 37 (0.84) 5.13% 1 (4.35) 38 (0.85) 2.56% 1 (2.6)
 Sotalol 63 (1.40) 4 (0.74) 59 (1.49) 6.35% 1 (0.62) 62 (1.42) 1.59% 3 (4.8)
 Amiloride 126 (2.79) 13 (6.44)* 113 (2.62) 10.32% 4 (4.26) 122 (2.76) 3.17% 12 (9.5)
 Spironolactone 330 (7.31) 35 (17.50)* 295 (6.84) 10.61% 11 (20.37)* 319 (7.15) 3.33% 25 (7.6)
 Hydrochlorothiazide 265 (5.87) 22 (11.00)* 243 (5.64) 8.30% 6 (11.11) 259 (5.81) 2.26% 18 (6.8)
 NSAIDs& 525 (11.63) 122 (11.31) 403 (11.74) 23.24% 55 (13.41) 470 (11.45) 10.48% 73 (13.9)
 Meloxicam and nimesulide 108 (2.39) 25 (2.32) 83 (2.42) 23.15% 11 (2.68) 97 (2.36) 10.18% 15 (13.9)
 Alendronic acid 20 (0.44) 2 (0.59) 18 (0.43) 10.00% 0 20 (0.45) 0% 2 (10.00)
Drugs requiring dose adjustment
 Ranitidine 100 (2.22) 42 (3.89)* 58 (1.69) 42.00% 15 (3.66)* 85 (2.07) 15.00% 28 (28.0)
 Gliclazide 197 (4.36) 56 (5.19) 141 (4.11) 28.43% 28 (6.83)* 169 (4.12) 14.21% 32 (16.2)
 Digoxin 204 (4.52) 95 (8.80)* 109 (3.18) 46.57% 34 (8.29)* 170 (4.14) 16.67% 63 (30.9)
 Atenolol 56 (1.24) 5 (1.48) 51 (1.22) 8.93% 4 (4.12)* 52 (1.18) 7.14% 1 (1.8)
 Fenofibrate 61 (1.35) 24 (1.38) 37 (1.33) 39.34% 24 (2.81)* 37 (1.01) 39.34% 4 (6.6)
 Tramadol 81 (1.79) 3 (1.50) 78 (1.81) 3.70% 0 81 (1.82) 0% 2 (2.5)
 Piracetam 342 (7.58) 128 (11.86)* 214 (6.23) 37.43% 57 (13.90)* 285 (6.94) 16.67% 77 (22.5)
 Cetirizine 38 (0.84) 0 38 (0.88) 0% 0 38 (0.85) 0% 0
  1. &excluding meloxicam, nimesulide, and low-dose aspirine
  2. *p < 0.05 vs. renally appropriate use
  3. sMDRD short Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study equation; CC Creatinine clearance calculated with Cockcroft-Gault equation