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Table 2 Results from Multilevel modeling of community setting impact on cognitive decline of seniors in CHARLS

From: The impact of rural-urban community settings on cognitive decline: results from a nationally-representative sample of seniors in China

Mixed Effect β(SE)
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5 Model 6 Model 7
Fixed Effects
 Within-Individual Covariate
  Intercept 18.493(0.132)*** −0.402(1.536) − 0.403(1.536) 0.778(1.494) 9.511(1.456)*** 9.282(1.447)*** 8.691(1.456)***
  Linear Time Slope 1.431(0.105)*** 1.431(0.104)*** 1.431(0.104)*** 1.431(0.104)*** 1.431(0.104)*** 1.431(0.104)*** 1.431(0.104)***
  Quadratic Time Steepness 0.318(0.103)** 0.318(0.103)** 0.318(0.103)** 0.318(0.103)** 0.318(0.103)** 0.318(0.103)** 0.318(0.103)**
 Individual-level Covariates
  Age (Year old) a   0.229(0.021)*** 0.239(0.021)*** 0.232(0.021)*** 0.148(0.019)*** 0.160(0.019)*** 0.163(0.019)***
  Sex (Female)   1.845(0.195)*** 1.885(0.195)*** 1.638(0.190)*** 0.553(0.184)** 0.575(0.182)** 0.163(0019)***
  Childhood Residency (City/Town)   2.301(0.327)*** 2.083(0.331)*** 1.207(0.334)*** 1.204(0.295)*** 0.733(0.306)* 0.721(0.305)*
  Government Subsidies (No)    −0.821(0.217)***    −0.470(0.194)* −0.437(0.193)*
  Occupation (Inside State-owned Business)     −2.579(0.247)***   −1.057(0.244)*** −1.069(0.243)***
 Education b
   (Elementary School)      −3.220(0.223)*** −3.121(0.222)*** −3.127(0.221)***
   (Middle School)      −5.768(0.2645)*** −5.320(0.279)*** − 5.284(0.279)***
   Smoking c        
   (Quit)        0.117(0.277)
   (Still)        0.641(0.219)**
  Community Setting(Urban) −2.278(0.208)*** −2.100(0.212)*** −1.788(0.226)*** −1.381(0.216)*** −1.227(0.191)*** −0.830(0.207)*** −0.822(0.206)***
  Urban × Linear Time Slope −0.240(0.165) − 0.240(0.165) −0.240(0.165) − 0.240(0.165) −0.240(0.165) − 0.240(0.165) −0.240(0.165)
  Urban × Quadratic Time Steepness 0.320(0.162)* 0.320(0.162)* 0.320(0.163)*** 0.320(0.163)* 0.320(0.163)* 0.320(0.163)* 0.320(0.163)*
 Random Variance
  Residual 10.841 10.866 10.867 10.872 10.872 10.872 10.872
 Within Community
  Intercept/Initial Level 3.189 9.689 8.104 9.653 6.958 6.489 5.701
  Time slope/Decline Rate 0.072 0.217 0.183 0.225 0.210 0.116 0.182
 Between Community
  Intercept/Initial Level 11.025 2.299 3.750 1.384 1.566 1.837 2.551
  Time slope/Decline Rate 0.248 0.052 0.085 0.033 0.048 0.141 0.075
  AIC 29,533 29,320 29,307 29,216 28,908 28,884 28,878
  BIC 29,618 29,424 29,418 29,327 29,025 29,015 29,022
  χ2(df)   M2 vs M1 219.49(3) *** M3 vs M2 14.27(1) *** M4 vs M3 91.02 (0) *** M5 vs M4 310.50(1) *** M6 vs M5 27.97 (2) *** M7 vs M6 9.62 (2)**
  1. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001
  2. aage was measured as a baseline level at first wave
  3. billiterate was set as reference level
  4. cNever smoker was set as reference level