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Table 4 Overview of descriptive variables and assessment measures over the course of the study

From: Comparison of a group-delivered and individually delivered lifestyle-integrated functional exercise (LiFE) program in older persons: a randomized noninferiority trial

   TS IS BA Int FU6 FU12
  Socio-demography
 Age; birthday; gender; living conditions (institutionalised vs. community-dwelling) x      
 Living alone or not; marital status; school-leaving qualification; years of education; academic grades; retirement age   x     
 German-speaking x      
Medical and medication information
 Height; weight   x    x x
 Blood pressuref   x     
 Vision impairment: Are you able to read a newspaper or book, with or without visual aid? x      
 Hearing impairment (whisper test)   x     
 Fall history and fall-related injuries in the past 12 months x      
P Fall calendard [43]
 Prevalence of neurologic, pulmonary or cardiac disease x      
 Comorbidities incl. Treatment; cardiac issues or stroke in past 6 months; pain while walking and resting; blood pressure [mmHg]; pulse [1/min]; use of sedatives or anticonvulsants; number of hospital admissions in past 12 months; urinary incontinence in past 12 months   x     
 Medication use (type, dosage, frequency)    x   x x
Neuropsychological status
 Depressive symptoms: Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, 10 item Version [CES-D 10] [80]   x     
 Cognitive status: Montreal Cognitive Assessment [MoCa] [81]   x     
S  Fear of falling: Short Falls Efficacy Scale International [Short FES-I] [53]    x   x x
  Motor function
   Occurrence of dizziness or gait insecurity in past 12 months   x     
S  Balance self-efficacy: Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale [ABC-Scale] [58]    x   x x
S  Functional mobility: (instrumented) Timed Up-and-Go Test [34] x   x   x x
S  Functional capacity: Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument [LLFDI] [57]    x   x x
S  Static balance: 8 Level Balance Scale [29]    x   x x
S  Static balance: (instrumented) Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance [54]    x   x x
S  Static balance: (instrumented) tandem stance with eyes closed    x   x x
S  Functional leg strength: (instrumented) 30 s chair rise [55]    x   x x
S  Gait performance: (instrumented) 7 m walking test (usual and fast pace)    x   x x
S  Handgrip strength: dynamometer    x   x x
Health status and economics
 Subjective health: Compared with other people in your age group, how would you rate your personal health?   x     
P  Health-related quality of life: EQ-5D-5 L and EQ-VAS [50]    x   x x
S  Health-related resource use: adapted version of the questionnaire for the use of medical and non-medical services in old age [FIMA] [59]    x   x x
  Physical activity status
   Participation in regular exercise activities > 1/week in the past 3 months; Execution of > 150 min/week moderate to vigorous physical activity x      
P/ S  Accelerometer-collected physical activity (energy expenditure; duration, percentage, and intensity of sedentariness, activity, and walking)    x   x x
  Psychosocial questionnaires
S  Subjective (felt) age: visual analogue scale and years    x   x x
S  HAPA-related questionnaires: Intention, action and coping planning, individual action control, sources of self-efficacy [60]    x xc x x
 HAPA-related questionnaires: outcome expectations, risk perception [60]    x    
S  HAPA-related self-efficacy: motivational, maintenance, recovery [60]    x   x x
S  Habit strength: Self-Report Behavioural Automaticity Indexe [SRBAI] [40]    x xc x x
S  Motivational quality: Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire [BRE-Q-3] [62]    x    x
S  Social support: Loneliness Scale [61]e    x   x x
 Affiliative Tendency and Sensitivity to Rejection Scale [82]    x    
 Psychological Need Satisfaction in Exercise Scale [83]     xb,c   
 Group cohesion: Cohesion in teams–Leisure and health sport [KIT-FG] [84] (only gLiFE participants)e     xa,c   
Adherence and group evaluation
S  Exercise adherence: Exercise Adherence Rating Scaled,e [EARS] [63]     x x x
 Evaluation of the intervention session: school grades scalee     xa–c   
 Satisfaction with the LiFE programe     xc x  
 Questions on motivation of participants (only trainers)e     xa–c   
  1. a,b,c: session number, after which the respective questionnaire is administered
  2. d: part of monthly-returned fall calendar over 12 months
  3. e: included in process evaluation
  4. f: if > 160 / 90, the person’s general practitioner has to provide consent for participation
  5. BA baseline assessment, FU6 6 month follow-up, FU12 12 month follow-up, Int within-intervention assessments, IS inhouse screening, P primary outcome measure (or part of it), S secondary outcome measure, TS telephone screening