|Item No.; Name||Description|
|1. Brief name||Lifestyle-integrated Functional Exercise (LiFE): individually delivered (LiFE) and group-delivered (gLiFE)|
|2. Why||The LiFE program was shown to be effective in reducing falls while at the same time improving balance, strength, and enhancing physical activity. Due to high economic requirements regarding the program’s delivery, a group-based delivery of the program is tested to evaluate whether a more cost-effective approach can be successful.|
|3. What: Materials||
Participant’s manual, German version ; used during and after intervention: Contains descriptions and instructions of all LiFE activities; principles of balance and strength training as well as physical activity enhancement; precautions and safety instructions when performing the activities; background on balance and strength exercise; assistance and support for changing habits and performing LiFE activities.|
Trainer’s manual, German version; one for LiFE, one for gLiFE. Contains all information also included in the participant’s manual; additionally: complete outline of all 7 sessions and 2 phone calls, including text templates, material, preparations, and precautions.
Working book; for all participants; used during intervention: Includes information on study procedures, personnel, contacts, and safety instructions; activity planning sheets for balance, strength, and physical activity; notes pages; LiFE principles; ‘life compass’
LiFE Assessment Tool (modified Version in German); for trainers; used to determine individuals’ performance level of LiFE activities
Laminated cards, showing LiFE principles and LiFE activities to be used as visual aids during intervention sessions.
Further materials to be used in interventions sessions: balls, blankets, sponge rubber, boxes, clipboards, pens, bags, name tags, flipcharts.
|4. What: Procedures||
7 home visits by one qualified trainer, 2 telephone calls 4 and 10 weeks after last session.
7 group sessions (n = 8–12 participants) led by one main and one co-trainer, 2 telephone calls 4 and 10 weeks after last session.
|In both intervention arms, LiFE activities, identification of daily situations to integrate activities, their selection, implementation, and upgrading are addressed. In session 1, 4 LiFE activities are introduced; in each subsequent session, 2 other new activities are added. One theoretical lesson is given in each session; topics are: (1) LiFE principles, (2) cues and prompts, (3) upgrading, (4) coping planning, (5) resources for habit formation, (6) mindfulness vs. habit, and (7) long-term success with LiFE. Action planning and implementation intentions are addressed at the end of each session. To compensate for not being in the individual’s home and the lack of knowledge on the person’s environment, in gLiFE, visualization techniques are used to support and facilitate action planning as well as habit formation.|
|5. Who provided||Trainers are either sport scientists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists or psychologists. All trainers received a two-day training course on the program background, aims, and components prior to the project start.|
|6. How||After randomization, the intervention is provided either in a one-to-one situation in the participant’s home or in a group setting with 8–12 participants.|
|7. Where||Two study sites: Heidelberg and Stuttgart (Germany).|
Delivered in participants’ homes in suburban Heidelberg area (max. 15 km from the city centre) / one large city district in Stuttgart.
Participants attend sessions at the Network Aging Research (Heidelberg) / rented rooms near the recruitment district in Stuttgart.
|8. When and how much||
7 sessions within 11 weeks: week 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11. Two telephone calls 4 and 10 weeks after the last session (i.e., week 15 and 21). Duration of each session: 1–1.5 h.
Duration of each session: 2–2.5 h.
|Intensity and dose are determined by the individuals’ activity plans, adherence, and performance level of each activity.|
|9. Tailoring||In (g)LiFE, irrespective of its method of delivery, individual tailoring is constantly given due to the activities’ integration into the subjects’ personal routine. LiFE activities, their frequency and intensity are determined by the participants and their situation in which the activities are integrated.|
|11. How well: Planned||
To assess adherence to i/gLiFE, participants fill out the Exercise Adherence Rating Scale (EARS; ) on a monthly basis. Completed forms are then sent to the study centres in Heidelberg and Stuttgart by mail. Activity planning sheets used during the intervention phase also contain check boxes for each day (activity completed as planned vs. not completed as planned).|
Fidelity of the intervention delivery is pursed by providing a comprehensive trainer’s manual, in which each intervention session is outlined in large detail to ensure standardized delivery of all intervention components. All trainers have received a two-day training course.
|12. How well: Actual||n.a.|