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Table 1 Demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics of Alzheimer’s disease and matched cohorts

From: Retrospective assessment of patient characteristics and healthcare costs prior to a diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease in an administrative claims database

Characteristic AD Matched Cohort (no AD or dementia) P value*
N 16,494 49,482
Age in years, mean [SD] 79.9 [6.1] 79.9 [6.1] 0.830
Gender, n (%)
 Female 9800 (59.4) 29,400 (59.4) 1.000
 Male 6694 (40.6) 20,082 (40.6)
Race/ Ethnicity, n (%)
 White 13,879 (84.1) 41,637 (84.1) 1.000
 Black 1970 (11.9) 5910 (11.9)
 Hispanic 317 (1.9) 951 (1.9)
 Other 328 (1.9) 984 (1.9)
Geographic Region, n (%)
 Northeast 328 (1.9) 1081 (2.2) < 0.001
 Midwest 4080 (24.7) 13,227 (26.7)
 South 10,859 (65.8) 30,862 (62.4)
 West 1227 (7.4) 4312 (8.7)
Plan Type, n (%)
 MAPD 16,391 (99.4) 48,923 (98.9) < 0.001
 Commercial 103 (0.6) 559 (1.1)
Plan Characteristics (MAPD), n (%)
 Low Income Subsidy Status Only 2566 (15.5) 4531 (9.1) < 0.001
 Dual Eligibility (Medicare and Medicaid) Only 32 (0.2) 61 (0.1) 0.030
 Length of Pre-index Enrollment – mean [SD] 68.9 [19.4] 68.9 [19.4] 0.980
Estimated Household Income, n (%)
  < $15,000 3465 (21.0) 10,748 (21.7) 0.003
 $15,000–$29,999 2589 (15.7) 7948 (16.0)
 $30,000–$49,999 3433 (20.8) 10,467 (21.1)
 $50,000–$99,999 3749 (22.7) 12,250 (24.7)
  > =$100,000¥ 1084 (6.6) 3757 (7.6)
 Unknown 2174 (13.2) 4312 (8.7)
Census 2010 Percent Blue Collar Employed, n (%)
 0–14% 2940 (17.8) 10,086 (20.3) < 0.001
 15–20% 2802 (16.9) 9361 (18.9)
 21–26% 3077 (18.6) 9765 (19.7)
 27–33% 3030 (18.4) 8846 (17.8)
 34–99% 2471 (14.9) 7112 (14.3)
 Unknown 2174 (13.2) 4312 (8.7)
Census 2010 Percent White Collar Employed, n (%) < 0.001
 0–48% 3149 (19.1) 9305 (18.8)
 49–56% 3167 (19.2) 9505 (19.2)
 57–64% 2981 (18.1) 9620 (19.4)
 65–74% 2875 (17.4) 9406 (19.0)
 75–99% 2148 (13.0) 7334 (14.8)
 Unknown 2174 (13.2) 4312 (8.7)
Index AD diagnosing Provider, n (%) (N = 16,558)
 Primary Care 5800 (35.1)   
 Geriatrics 526 (3.2)   
 Neurology 2225 (13.5)   
 Psychiatry 813 (4.9)   
 Psychology 240 (1.5)   
 Other 6906 (41.8)   
Multiple Visits to Index AD-diagnosing provider 12,838 (77.5)   
Only one Visit to Index AD-diagnosing provider 3720 (22.5)   
Time between first and second claim with AD diagnosis Average: 92 days SD: 125 Median: 34 days   
  1. Abbreviations: AD Alzheimer’s disease, MAPD Medicare Advantage Prescription Drug, SD Standard deviation
  2. Cohorts were matched on age, gender, race and length of pre-index enrollment
  3. ¥ Categories were merged; *Chi square test used for categorical variables; Wilcoxon rank sum test used for continuous variables; Significance level set at P < 0.05
  4. Please note that for identifying most commonly seen provider were identified prior to matching (N = 16,558) and we have identified only outpatient visits. The index diagnoses for 35 patients were not at an outpatient facility. The specialties of 15.7% of the index AD-diagnosing providers were unknown because the specialty data were missing from the claims database