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Table 2 Comparison of current and retired drivers with cognitive impairment on predictor variables

From: Adherence to driving cessation advice given to patients with cognitive impairment and consequences for mobility

  Group p Value (df)
Current drivers (n = 104) Retired drivers (n = 68)
Intrapersonal factors
 Age in years, mean (SD), y 70.2 (8.7) 73.0 (8.7) .032 (171)a*
 Male sex, No. (%) 83 (79.8%) 45 (66.2%) .051 (1)b
 Diagnosis of AD, No. (%) 53 (51.0%) 40 (58.8%) .035 (1)b*
 CDR-score, No. (%)
  0 15 (14.4%) 1 (1.5%) <.001 (2)c*
  0.5 86 (82.7%) 44 (64.7%)
  1 3 (2.9%) 23 (33.8%)
 MMSE-score, mean (SD) 24.9 (3.5) 22.4 (4.2) <.001 (171)a*
 Health decline, No. (%)
  No 76 (73.1%) 33 (49.2%) .004 (2)c*
  To some extent 7 (6.7%) 5 (7.5%)
  Yes 21 (20.2%) 29 (43.3%)
 Visual acuity (0–1), mean (SD) .88 (0.21) .84 (0.21) .181 (169)a
 Contrast sensitivity (0–16), mean (SD) 12.84 (0.68) 12.55 (0.96) .022 (170)a*
 Importance of driving, mean (SD) 1.57 (0.73) 1.78 (0.83) .091 (171)a
 Patient’s judgement of driving safety, No. (%)
  Safe 88 (85.4%) 52 (76.5%) .136 (2)c
  Less safe than when middle-aged 15 (14.6%) 16 (23.5%)
  Unsafe 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%)
Interpersonal factors
 Recommendation given after fitness-to-drive assessment, No. (%)
  Continue driving 73 (92.4%) 6 (7.6%) <.001 (2)c*
  Driving lessons 18 (58.9%) 13 (41.9%)
  Cease driving 13 (21.0%) 49 (79.0%)
 Authority figure recommended driving cessation, No. (%) 1 (1.0%) 12 (17.6%) <.001 (1)b*
 Informant’s judgement of driving safety, No (%)
  Safe 68 (66.6%) 42 (64.6%) .190 (2)c
  Less safe than when middle-aged 32 (31.4%) 18 (27.7%)
  Unsafe 2 (2.0%) 5 (7.7%)
Environmental factors
 Passenger of other drivers, No. (%) 90 (86.5%) 65 (95.6%) .067 (1)b
 Sum of modes of transport used other than the private car, mean (SD) 2.48 (0.83) 2.12 (1.04) .013 (168)a*
 Car accidents, mean (SD) 0.10 (0.33) 0.16 (0.51) .484 (171)a
Process of driving cessation
 Driving reduction, mean (SD) −1.49 (1.49) − 1.83 (1.72) .151 (168)a
 Driving restriction, mean (SD) 1.85 (1.77) 2.34 (2.30) .343 (170)a
  1. aMann-Whitney U test
  2. bFisher’s Exact test
  3. cχ2 test
  4. Statistical significance (p < .05) is indicated by*
  5. Abbreviations: AD Alzheimer’s disease, CDR-score Clinical Dementia Rating Total Score, MMSE-score Mini Mental State Examination Total Score