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Table 2 The association of risk factors with cognitive decline in the total sample

From: Age dependency of risk factors for cognitive decline

Risk factor MMSE 15WT immediate recall 15WT delayed recall
B SE P-value B SE P-value B SE P-value
APOE ε4 −0.25 0.24 < 0.01 −0.07 1.27 0.49 −0.09 1.44 0.42
Total cholesterol 0.05 0.17 0.34 0.09 1.22 0.11 0.08 1.39 0.21
LDL cholesterol 0.05 0.17 0.41 0.08 1.24 0.20 0.08 1.41 0.25
HDL cholesterol 0.16 0.16 0.20 0.23 1.21 0.08 0.07 1.42 0.67
Homocysteine −0.05 0.12 < 0.01 −0.05 1.16 < 0.01 − 0.06 1.33 < 0.01
Hypertension 0.13 0.28 0.26 −0.02 1.26 0.88 −0.03 1.43 0.85
DM −0.16 0.29 0.25 −0.42 1.28 0.01 −0.42 1.45 0.04
MI 0.05 0.29 0.69 0.08 1.28 0.58 0.22 1.48 0.21
Stroke −0.40 0.28 0.02 −0.55 1.27 0.01 −0.58 1.44 0.02
Depressive symptoms −0.01 0.33 < 0.01 −0.02 1.33 < 0.01 −0.02 1.50 < 0.01
CRP 0.00 0.27 0.57 −0.01 1.27 0.15 −0.01 1.45 0.47
IL-6 0.01 0.26 0.46 0.01 1.27 0.72 0.02 1.44 0.42
ACT 0.00 0.27 0.68 0.00 1.27 0.74 0.00 1.45 0.87
Alcohola: minimalb 0.27 0.10 < 0.01 0.35 0.12 < 0.01 0.35 0.14 0.01
Alcohola: moderatec 0.24 0.08 < 0.01 0.41 0.10 < 0.01 0.42 0.12 < 0.01
Smoking −0.09 0.25 0.26 −0.16 1.27 0.09 −0.03 1.46 0.77
Physical activity 0.00 0.30 0.78 0.00 1.28 0.59 0.00 1.45 0.24
  1. B’s are determined by linear mixed models in combination with splines and adjusted for sex and education
  2. 15WT 15 Words Test, ACT a1-antichymotrypsin, APOE apolipoprotein E, CRP C-reactive protein, DM Diabetes mellitus, HDL High-Density Lipoprotein, IL-6 interleukin-6, LDL Low-Density Lipoprotein, MI Myocardial infarction, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination
  3. aNo alcohol use is reference group. bWomen:1 drink/day, men: 1–2 drinks/day. cWomen: > 1 drink/day, men: > 2 drinks/day