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Table 2 Patient characteristics according to the cause of admission

From: Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) reliably stratifies octogenarians in German ICUs: a multicentre prospective cohort study

Admission unplannd vs. planned   Unplanned   Planned p-value
Cause of admission Acute medical Acute surgery Trauma Elective surgery Elective vs acute
Sample size 162 (52.6%) 16 (5.2%) 33 (10.7%) 97 (31.5%)  
Age 84 [82–86] 83 [81–89] 86 [83–90] 83 [81–87] 0.33
Male 82 (50.6%) 12 (75%) 13 (39.4%) 47 (48.5%) 0.71
APACHE II 20 [15–27] 18 [14–18] 18 [13–24] 14 [10–19] 0.001
SAPS II 42 [34–53] 46 [42–46] 31 [23–46] 35 [26–49] 0.03
SOFA Score 8 [4–10] 11 [6–13] 6 [4–9] 4 [3–7] < 0.001
Frailty status
 Fit (CFS 1–3) 30 (18.5%) 7 (43.8%) 8 (24.2%) 28 (28.9%) 0.15
 Pre-frail (CFS 4) 28 (17.3%) 1 (6.3%) 6 (18.2%) 35 (36.1%) < 0.001
 Frail (CFS 5–9) 104 (64.2%) 8 (50%) 19 (57.6%) 34 (35.1%) < 0.001
ICU length of stay (days) 5 [2.0–10.5] 6.2 [2.1–17.6] 3 [1.3–6.8] 1.4 [1–3.5] < 0.001
Use of life sustaining treatments
 Non-invasive ventilation 63 (38.9%) 6 (37.5%) 10 (30.3%) 25 (25.8%) 0.04
 Mechanical ventilation 75 (46.3%) 13 (81.3%) 20 (60.6%) 33 (34%) 0.005
 Vasoactive drugs 110 (67.9%) 15 (93.8%) 20 (60.6%) 44 (45.4%) < 0.001
 Renal replacement therapy 41 (25.3%) 4 (25%) 1 (3%) 13 (13.4%) 0.08
Treatment withheld 29 (17.9%) 3 (18.8%) 9 (27.3%) 0 (0%) < 0.001
Treatment withdrawn 27 (16.7%) 3 (18.8%) 4 (12.1%) 2 (2.1%) < 0.001
ICU mortality 39 (24.1%) 4 (25%) 6 (18.2%) 4 (4.2%) < 0.001
30-day mortality 61 (41.8%) 6 (50%) 10 (38.5%) 7 (8.2%) < 0.001