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Table 1 Descriptive Characteristics of LTC Study Participants in Yichang China, According to Residence, Before and After Propensity-Score Matching

From: Pain perception of older adults in nursing home and home care settings: evidence from China

   Unmatched Matched
Total Home Nursing Home   Home Nursing Home  
Mean(%) SD Mean(%) SD Mean(%) SD p value Mean(%) SD Mean(%) SD p value
Pain
 0. No pain 55.03%   62.64%   49.00%    54.60%   48.56%   
 1. Mild/moderate pain 23.86%   17.65%   28.86%    31.50%   29.92%   
 2. Daily horrible/excruciating pain 21.10%   19.81%   22.14%    13.91%   21.52%   
Residence
 Home 45.44%            
 Nursing home 55.56%            
Age 77.80 7.76 77.32 7.11 78.20 8.03 0.014 79.55 7.15 78.20 8.03 0.129
Gender
 Female 61.11%   72.70%   60.60%   <.0001 62.00%   60.60%   0.712
 Male 38.89%   27.30%   39.40%    38.00%   39.40%   
Marital status
 Not married 5.56%   2.80%   7.61%   <.0001 10.24%   7.61%   0.204
 Married with spouse present 34.72%   53.58%   19.42%    15.75%   19.42%   
 Widowed 59.72%   43.61%   72.97%    74.02%   72.97%   
Education
 No education 26.94%   24.61%   29.40%   0.014 35.70%   29.40%   0.156
 Primary 30.97%   37.07%   24.93%    30.71%   24.93%   
 Secondary 34.86%   28.87%   38.06%    31.15%   38.06%   
 High school and above 7.22%   4.72%   7.61%    7.17%   7.61%   
Primary caregiver
 None 10.40%   8.72%   12.07%   <.0001 11.82%   12.07%   0.15
 Spouse 53.12%   46.42%   58.79%    57.88%   58.79%   
 Children 36.48%   44.86%   29.13%    30.30%   29.13%   
Have insurance 93.47%   97.51%   89.76%   <.0001 88.22%   89.76%   0.822
Income more than 4000 RMB 59.95%   44.58%   71.20%   < 0.001 54.26%   70.34%   0.31
Mean of behavior problems (range:0–2) 0.04 0.16 0.02 0.12 0.04 0.17 <.0001 0.04 0.15 0.04 0.17 0.745
Depression score (range:0–20) 1.97 3.29 1.08 4.65 2.55 3.59 0.004 2.38 2.41 2.55 3.59 0.601
Mobility
 Independent 66.11%   78.51%   58.79%   <.0001 58.81%   58.79%   0.81
 Walks with assistance 22.92%   17.45%   28.87%    28.08%   28.87%   
 Wheelchair-dependent 8.33%   4.05%   12.34%    13.12%   12.34%   
 Bedbound 2.64%            
Toileting
 Independent 79.17%   80.06%   78.25%   0.002 79.06%   78.25%   0.481
 Some supervision 5.14%   5.92%   4.46%    4.20%   4.46%   
 complete supervision 0.83%   2.25%   2.53%    2.46%   2.53%   
 some assistance 2.92%   2.80%   3.15%    3.20%   3.15%   
 complete assistance 3.19%   3.43%   3.63%    2.73%   3.63%   
 Most assistance 0.83%   0.62%   0.79%    0.62%   0.79%   
 Dependent 7.92%   1.89%   6.30%    6.22%   6.30%   
Dementia diagnose 10.99%   9.29%   12.24%   <.0001 9.69%   10.15%   0.942
No. of chronic disease (range:0–20) 0.22 0.16 0.26   0.19    0.20   0.19   0.673
Have at least one ulcer 2.50%   1.05%   2.63%   0.016 2.28%   2.63%   0.704
Have inpatient in the last 90 days 16.11%   22.57%   13.65%   0.013 15.32%   13.65%   0.403
Observations 720   320   400    242   242   
  1. SD standard deviation