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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of study participants with and without IADL decline by gender (n = 6722)

From: Association between stairs in the home and instrumental activities of daily living among community-dwelling older adults

  Men (n = 2923) Women (n = 3799)
No decline (n = 2511) Decline (n = 412) P a No decline (n = 3430) Decline (n = 369) P a
Age: 75 years and older 32.2% 49.0% < 0.001 34.2% 75.6% < 0.001
Studied area: B Town 14.5% 20.9% 0.001 17.8% 24.4% 0.003
Marital status: not married 12.0% 11.9% 1.000 35.1% 53.7% < 0.001
Working status: not working 68.6% 65.8% 0.254 82.4% 81.3% 0.616
Self-perceived economy: poor 51.2% 53.4% 0.425 51.2% 45.3% 0.033
Body mass index
 Normal 75.4% 73.5% < 0.001 73.6% 66.1% < 0.001
 Underweight 3.4% 7.8% 8.3% 14.6%
 Overweight 21.1% 18.7% 18.1% 19.2%
Hypertension: present 40.2% 34.7% 0.039 39.5% 43.6% 0.131
Diabetes mellitus: present 14.1% 17.0% 0.130 8.7% 9.8% 0.499
Cerebrovascular diseases: present 3.3% 5.3% 0.063 1.8% 3.8% 0.016
Cancer: present 3.8% 3.9% 0.890 2.5% 1.6% 0.373
Alcohol: daily/occasional drinkers 63.4% 52.4% < 0.001 18.8% 12.5% 0.002
Smoking: ex/current smokers 71.2% 69.2% 0.413 8.0% 7.0% 0.611
Eating: low dietary variety 49.5% 54.1% 0.089 34.1% 52.6% < 0.001
Poor BADL 14.1% 21.6% < 0.001 20.9% 35.0% < 0.001
Poor cognitive functioning 12.4% 25.5% < 0.001 11.8% 26.6% < 0.001
Subjects with depression 16.5% 29.9% < 0.001 18.8% 38.5% < 0.001
Poor self-rated health 11.3% 19.2% < 0.001 11.3% 28.5% < 0.001
Social participation: none 30.8% 33.3% 0.330 27.9% 38.2% < 0.001
  1. BADL, basic activities of daily living; IADL, instrumental activities of daily living
  2. aDifferences between subjects with or without IADL decline were analyzed using Fisher’s exact test