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Table 3 Use of medications, especially those with CNS effects, at baseline (before withdrawal) and at 3-year follow-up. Participants are grouped by BZDA withdrawal status at 3 years (non-users, irregular users, regular users). P is for baseline vs. 3-year follow-up

From: Long-term persistence of withdrawal of temazepam, zopiclone, and zolpidem in older adults: a 3-year follow-up study

  Non-users (N = 26) Irregular users (N = 27) Regular users (N = 30) P (between groups)
Median [LQ,UQ] Median [LQ,UQ] Median [LQ,UQ]  
Number of all medications
 Baseline 4 [3, 5] 4 [4, 5] 4 [3, 6] 0.767
 3-year follow-up 4 [2, 6] 5 [3, 7] 5 [3, 7] 0.222
 P 0.432 0.011 0.026  
Number of concomitant CNS medicationsa
 Baseline 0 [0, 1] 0 [0, 1] 0 [0, 1] 0.744
 3-year follow-up 1 [0, 1] 0 [0, 1] 0 [0, 1] 0.286
 P 0.268 0.307 0.827  
Users of medications groups N (%) N (%) N (%)  
Antipsychotics
 Baseline 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1.000
 3-year follow-up 0 (0) 1 (4) 1 (3) 1.000
 P 0.157
Antidepressants
 Baseline 4 (15) 7 (26) 6 (20) 0.634
 3-year follow-up 9 (34) 11 (41) 9 (30) 0.677
 P 0.006
Antiepileptics, gabapentinoids
 Baseline 1 (4) 1 (4) 1 (3) 1.000
 3-year follow-up 0 (0) 1 (4) 0 (0) 0.639
 P 0.337
Dopamine agonists
 Baseline 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1.000
 3-year follow-up 2 (8) 2 (7) 0 (0) 0.382
 P 0.046
Melatonin
 Baseline 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1.000
 3-year follow-up 7 (27) 3 (11) 4 (13) 0.290
 P 0.001
Opioids
 Baseline 2 (8) 3 (11) 1 (3) 0.507
 3-year follow-up 1 (4) 0 (0) 2 (7) 0.643
 P 0.190
NSAIDS, paracetamolb
 Baseline 8 (31) 4 (15) 7 (23) 0.384
 3-year follow-up 16 (62) 12 (44) 15 (50) 0.447
 P < 0.001
Antihistamines
 Baseline 4 (15) 1 (4) 2 (7) 0.330
 3-year follow-up 4 (15) 1 (4) 2 (7) 0.330
 P 1.000
Anticholinergics
 Baseline 5 (19) 4 (15) 4 (13) 0.867
 3-year follow-up 8 (31) 6 (22) 4 (13) 0.287
 P 0.252
  1. anumber of CNS medications per participant (excl. BZDA and melatonin): antipsychotics, antidepressants, antiepileptics, dopamine agonists, antihistamines, anticholinergics
  2. bonly aspirin at analgesic doses (500 mg/d or higher) included; aspirin at antithrombotic doses (499 mg/d or lower) excluded