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Table 2 The association between health characteristics with standardized handgrip strength (HGS) and knee extension strength (KES) in geriatric outpatients (n = 163)

From: Knee extension strength measurements should be considered as part of the comprehensive geriatric assessment

  Model 1 (adjusted for age and sex) Model 2 (Model 1+ Z KES) Model 3 (Model 1+ Z HGS)
Z HGS Z KES Z HGS Z KES
β SE p β SE p β SE p β SE p
Physical
 Fall in previous 12 months, yes − 0.546 0.164 0.001 − 0.764 0.160 < 0.001 − 0.168 0.154 0.275 − 0.506 0.145 0.001
 SPPB, score 0.097* 0.027 < 0.001 0.173* 0.025 < 0.001 0.008 0.027 0.766 0.130 0.023 < 0.001
 TUG, sec −0.026* 0.009 0.005 − 0.051* 0.008 < 0.001 0.002 0.009 0.853 −0.039 0.008 < 0.001
 ADL, score −0.213 0.093 0.023 −0.298 0.090 0.001 −0.046 0.081 0.571 −0.185 0.078 0.019
Nutritional
 SNAQ, score −0.131 0.063 0.040 −0.149 0.064 0.020 −0.054 0.055 0.329 −0.081 0.055 0.145
 BMI, kg/m2 0.031 0.018 0.085 0.046 0.018 0.012 0.007 0.015 0.639 0.030 0.016 0.058
Social
 Care support, yes −0.296 0.170 0.083 −0.600 0.167 < 0.001 0.023 0.151 0.879 −0.447 0.144 0.002
 Dependent living, yes −0.334 0.226 0.142 −0.574 0.226 0.012 −0.031 0.196 0.875 −0.397 0.194 0.042
Psychological
 HADS depression, score −0.063 0.024 0.009 −0.091 0.023 < 0.001 −0.009 0.021 0.658 −0.056 0.019 0.005
 HADS anxiety, score −0.064 0.023 0.006 −0.070 0.023 0.003 −0.022 0.019 0.250 −0.032 0.019 0.097
Diseases
 Multimorbidity, yes −0.001 0.162 0.994 −0.040 0.165 0.808 0.020 0.137 0.885 −0.039 0.139 0.778
 Polypharmacy, yes −0.136 0.158 0.390 −0.045 0.160 0.777 −0.112 0.134 0.404 0.027 0.136 0.842
Cognitive
 MMSE, score 0.007 0.012 0.560 0.018 0.012 0.124 −0.003 0.010 0.790 0.014 0.010 0.149
 MoCA, score 0.032 0.017 0.065 0.024 0.019 0.207 0.021 0.015 0.166 0.006 0.016 0.730
Behavioural
 Alcohol use, units/week 0.010 0.011 0.352 0.019 0.011 0.080 0.000 0.009 0.994 0.014 0.009 0.139
 Current smoking, yes −0.122 0.238 0.609 −0.046 0.241 0.848 −0.096 0.197 0.626 0.023 0.200 0.907
  1. SPPB Short Physical Performance Battery, TUG Timed Up & Go, ADL Activities of daily living, SNAQ Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire, BMI body mass index, HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, MoCA Montreal Cognitive Assessment. In model 1, β of Z HGS and Z KES were compared with the formula ((β1- β2)/ √(SE12-SE22)) and p values derived from the standard normal distribution table and expressed as * if p < 0.05
  2. Bold p-values represented significant association between health characteristics with standardized HGS or standardized KES based on linear regression