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Table 4 Relative Risk Ratios for non-cardiological polypharmacy by gender, socioeconomic factors and disease burden

From: The prevalence and determinants of polypharmacy at age 69: a British birth cohort study

  Gender Adjusted Relative Risk Ratios Model One Model Two
RRR 95% LCI 95% UCI p RRR 95% LCI 95% UCI p RRR 95% LCI 95% UCI p
No Medication (reference) (reference) (reference)
Monotherapy (1 Med)
 Gender
  Male (reference)    0.013 (reference)    0.018 (reference)    0.034
  Female 1.3 1.1 1.7   1.3 1.1 1.7   1.3 1.0 1.6  
Educational Qualifications by Age 26
 None (reference)    0.123 (reference)    0.325 (reference)    0.433
 Vocational or O-Level Level 1.0 0.7 1.3   1.0 0.7 1.4   1.0 0.7 1.4  
 A-Level or Higher 0.8 0.6 1.0   0.8 0.6 1.1   0.9 0.6 1.2  
Social Class (age 53)
 Manual (reference)    0.056 (reference)    0.201 (reference)    0.302
 Non-Manual 0.8 0.6 1.0   0.8 0.6 1.1   0.9 0.6 1.1  
Number of Diagnosed Diseases
 None (reference)    < 0.001      (reference )    < 0.001
 One 1.6 1.2 2.1       1.5 1.1 2.0  
 Two 2.4 0.7 3.3       2.2 1.5 3.1  
Three or More 2.3 1.6 3.4       2.0 1.3 2.9  
Disease Severity
 No Limiting Conditions (reference)    < 0.001      (reference)    < 0.001
 Limiting Condition 2.3 1.7 3.1       2.0 1.5 2.7  
Polypharmacy (2–4 Meds)
 Gender
  Male (reference)    < 0.001 (reference)    < 0.001 (reference)    < 0.001
  Female 1.7 1.4 2.1   1.7 1.3 2.1   1.6 1.3 2.0  
Educational Qualifications by Age 26
 None (reference)    < 0.001 (reference)    0.001 (reference)    0.005
 Vocational or O-Level Level 0.8 0.6 1.1   0.9 0.6 1.1   0.9 0.6 1.2  
 A-Level or Higher 0.6 0.5 0.8   0.6 0.5 0.8   0.6 0.5 0.8  
Social Class (age 53)
 Manual (reference)    0.038 (reference)    0.593 (reference)    0.885
 Non-Manual 0.8 0.6 1.0   0.9 0.7 1.2   1.0 0.8 1.4  
Number of Diagnosed Diseases
 None (reference)    < 0.001      (reference)    < 0.001
 One 2.2 1.6 3.0       2.0 1.5 2.7  
 Two 3.9 2.8 5.6       3.4 2.4 4.8  
 Three or More 6.5 4.5 9.3       4.8 3.3 7.0  
Disease Severity
 No Limiting Conditions (reference)    < 0.001      (reference)    < 0.001
 Limiting Condition 3.9 3.0 5.2       3.0 2.3 4.0  
Extreme Polypharmacy (5+ Meds)
 Gender
  Male (reference)    < 0.001 (reference)    < 0.001 (reference)    < 0.001
  Female 2.2 1.6 3.1   2.2 1.5 3.1   2.2 1.5 3.3  
Educational Qualifications by Age 26
 None (reference)    < 0.001 (reference)    < 0.001 (reference)    < 0.001
 Vocational or O-Level Level 0.6 0.4 0.9   0.7 0.4 1.0   0.7 0.4 1.1  
 A-Level or Higher 0.3 0.2 0.4   0.3 0.2 0.5   0.3 0.2 0.5  
Social Class (age 53)
 Manual (reference)    < 0.001 (reference)    0.102 (reference)    0.791
 Non-Manual 0.5 0.3 0.7   0.7 0.5 1.1   0.9 0.6 1.5  
Number of Diagnosed Diseases
 None (reference)    < 0.001      (reference)    < 0.001
 One 3.0 1.5 6.0       2.4 1.1 4.9  
 Two 6.6 3.2 13.7       4.6 2.2 9.6  
 Three or More 29.5 15.0 57.9       15.1 7.5 30.4  
Disease Severity
 No Limiting Conditions (reference)    < 0.001      (reference)    < 0.001
 Limiting Condition 14.2 9.6 21.0       9.0 6.0 13.6  
  1. Model One: Gender, Education & Social Class. Model Two: Gender, Education, Social Class, Disease Burden & Severity
  2. Risk ratios rounded to a single decimal place