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Table 2 Dementia’s association with socioeconomic status before and after adjusting for lifestyle factors and medical history

From: A pathway from low socioeconomic status to dementia in Japan: results from the Toyama dementia survey

   Model; odds ratio (95% confidence interval)
Crude odds 1 2 3 4 5
Educational attainment
  ≤ 6 years 8.85 (5.26–14.87) 3.27 (1.84–5.81)   3.23 (1.79–5.84) 3.45 (1.88–6.34) 3.56 (1.90–6.66)
 7–9 years 1.12 (0.74–1.69) 0.92 (0.59–1.43)   0.89 (0.56–1.41) 0.93 (0.58–1.49) 0.92 (0.57–1.50)
  ≥ 10 years 1.00 1.00   1.00 1.00 1.00
Occupation
 White collar 1.00   1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Blue collar 1.61 (1.06–2.46)   1.26 (0.80–1.98) 1.16 (0.72–1.90) 1.12 (0.68–1.84) 1.14 (0.68–1.90)
 Both 1.32 (0.76–2.28)   1.33 (0.74–2.39) 1.29 (0.71–2.36) 1.25 (0.67–2.31) 1.07 (0.56–2.02)
 Other 2.65 (1.40–4.99)   1.90 (0.94–3.84) 1.96 (0.96–4.01) 1.74 (0.83–3.61) 1.66 (0.78–3.53)
Age
 65–74 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 75–84 4.55 (2.59–7.99) 4.14 (2.34–7.33) 4.51 (2.56–7.94) 4.08 (2.30–7.25) 3.65 (2.04–6.54) 3.55 (1.94–6.49)
  ≥ 85 19.03 (10.79–33.59) 14.61 (8.01–26.65) 19.11 (10.72–34.07) 14.21 (7.77–25.99) 12.61 (6.78–23.46) 12.35 (6.41–23.79)
Sex
 Men 0.92 (0.64–1.32) 1.34 (0.90–2.01) 1.31 (0.87–1.96) 1.42 (0.94–2.17) 3.05 (1.60–5.83) 2.71 (1.39–5.27)
 Women 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Alcohol consumption
 Current drinker 0.41 (0.25–0.67)     0.52 (0.28–0.97) 0.61 (0.32–1.16)
 Former drinker 2.94 (1.85–4.69)     2.61 (1.47–4.65) 2.52 (1.39–4.59)
 Nondrinker 1.00     1.00 1.00
Smoking
 Current smoker 0.39 (0.17–0.91)     0.40 (0.15–1.09) 0.50 (0.18–1.36)
 Former smoker 0.76 (0.50–1.16)     0.38 (0.20–0.73) 0.36 (0.19–0.70)
 Nonsmoker 1.00     1.00 1.00
Diabetes
 Yes 1.96 (1.29–2.98)      2.03 (1.23–3.35)
 No 1.00      1.00
Parkinson’s disease
 Yes 5.54 (2.07–14.81)      3.84 (1.11–13.37)
vNo 1.00      1.00
Stroke
 Yes 2.93 (1.80–4.76)      2.59 (1.45–4.63)
 No 1.00      1.00
Angina pectoris/cardiovascular disease
 Yes 2.64 (1.62–4.31)      1.81 (1.02–3.20)
 No 1.00      1.00
Dental disease/oral disease
 Yes 0.55 (0.28–1.07)      0.55 (0.26–1.15)
 No 1.00      1.00
Bone fracture
 Yes 2.56 (1.70–3.86)      1.56 (0.95–2.55)
 No 1.00      1.00
  1. Model 1 was adjusted for age, sex, and educational attainment
  2. Model 2 was adjusted for age, sex, and occupation
  3. Model 3 was adjusted for age, sex, and SES
  4. Model 4 was adjusted for age, sex, lifestyle, and SES
  5. Model 5 was adjusted for age, sex, lifestyle, medical history, and SES