
Descriptive statistics^{a}

Malnutrition risk score^{b}


(n = 234)

(MNA®SF)


Total

Not at risk (n = 62)

At risk (n = 109)

Prevalence ratio (95% CI)

p value


Dental status n (%)

Dentate

46 (19.7)

13 (28.3)

33 (71.7)

1
 
Edentulous

51 (21.8)

13 (25.5)

38 (74.5)

0.95 (0.84–1.07)

0.384

Dental appliance

137 (58.5)

36 (26.3)

101 (73.7)

1.00 (0.91–1.09)

0.956

Dysphagia risk

EAT10 score (mean ± SD)^{c}

3.0 ± 5.8

1.4 ± 2.2

3.6 ± 6.5

0.98 (0.97–0.99)

< 0.0001**

BMI

(mean ± SD)

24.7 ± 5.3

27.4 ± 5.2

23.7 ± 5.0

1.02 (1.02–1.03)

< 0.0001**

Muscle strength

Hand grip, kg (mean ± SD)^{d}

14.5 ± 7.0

16.0 ± 7.5

13.9 ± 6.7

1.01 (1.00–1.02)

0.006**

Requires help with ADL n (%)

No

77 (32.9)

25 (32.5)

52 (67.5)

1
 
Yes

157 (67.1)

37 (23.6)

120 (76.4)

0.93 (0.86–1.00)

0.061

Cognitive status

MoCA score (mean ± SD)^{e}

18.5 ± 5.8

20.3 ± 5.4

17.8 ± 5.8

1.01 (1.00–1.02)

0.025**

Number of medications

(mean ± SD)

7.5 ± 4.4

7.1 ± 3.5

7.7 ± 4.6

1.00 (0.99–1.01)

0.537

Number of comorbidities

(mean ± SD)

5.7 ± 2.7

5.6 ± 2.9

5.7 ± 2.7

1.00 (0.98–1.02)

0.683

Nutrition supplements n (%)

Taking^{f}

82 (35.0)

25 (30.5)

57 (69.5)

1
 
Not taking

152 (65.0)

37 (24.3)

115 (75.7)

0.95 (0.87–1.02)

0.163

 MNA®SF Mini Nutritional Assessment ShortForm, EAT10 Eating Assessment Tool, BMI body mass index, ADL activities of daily living, MoCA Montreal Cognitive Assessment
 ^{a}Descriptive statistics for continuous data were presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD) and categorical data presented as frequencies (n) and percentages (%)
 ^{b}Poisson regression with robust variance estimation. Each parameter was adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, number of comorbidities and medications; PR (95% CI) ** p value significant at p < 0.05
 ^{c}Missing data n = 2
 ^{d}Missing data n = 66
 ^{e}Missing data n = 69
 ^{f}Average number of supplements taken n = 1