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Table 2 Likelihood of having low health literacy per one standard deviation better cognitive functioning among older adults, in odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals)

From: Health literacy among older adults is associated with their 10-years’ cognitive functioning and decline - the Doetinchem Cohort Study

  Low health literacy (vs. high)
Model 1a Model 2b
Current cognitive functioning (in z-scores)
 Memory (n = 944) 0.58***
(0.48–0.71)
0.69***
(0.56–0.85)
 Information processing speed (n = 947) 0.50***
(0.40–0.63)
0.66***
(0.52–0.84)
 Mental flexibility (n = 942) 0.56***
(0.46–0.68)
0.67***
(0.54–0.83)
 Global cognitive functioning (n = 932) 0.38***
(0.29–0.50)
0.51***
(0.38–0.69)
Past cognitive functioning (in z-scores; measured 10 years earlier)
 Past memory (n = 732) 0.55***
(0.43–0.71)
0.71*
(0.54–0.93)
 Past information processing speed (n = 734) 0.49***
(0.37–0.66)
0.71*
(0.51–0.97)
 Past mental flexibility (n = 733) 0.56***
(0.43–0.73)
0.75*
(0.56–1.00)
 Past global cognitive functioning (n = 729) 0.34***
(0.25–0.48)
0.51***
(0.35–0.75)
  1. *p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001
  2. aAdjusted for age, age squared, and gender
  3. bAdjusted for age, age squared, gender, and educational level