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Table 2 Likelihood of having low health literacy per one standard deviation better cognitive functioning among older adults, in odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals)

From: Health literacy among older adults is associated with their 10-years’ cognitive functioning and decline - the Doetinchem Cohort Study

  Low health literacy (vs. high)
Model 1a Model 2b
Current cognitive functioning (in z-scores)
 Memory (n = 944) 0.58*** (0.48–0.71) 0.69*** (0.56–0.85)
 Information processing speed (n = 947) 0.50*** (0.40–0.63) 0.66*** (0.52–0.84)
 Mental flexibility (n = 942) 0.56*** (0.46–0.68) 0.67*** (0.54–0.83)
 Global cognitive functioning (n = 932) 0.38*** (0.29–0.50) 0.51*** (0.38–0.69)
Past cognitive functioning (in z-scores; measured 10 years earlier)
 Past memory (n = 732) 0.55*** (0.43–0.71) 0.71* (0.54–0.93)
 Past information processing speed (n = 734) 0.49*** (0.37–0.66) 0.71* (0.51–0.97)
 Past mental flexibility (n = 733) 0.56*** (0.43–0.73) 0.75* (0.56–1.00)
 Past global cognitive functioning (n = 729) 0.34*** (0.25–0.48) 0.51*** (0.35–0.75)
  1. *p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001
  2. aAdjusted for age, age squared, and gender
  3. bAdjusted for age, age squared, gender, and educational level