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Table 1 Background characteristics and current cognitive functioning of participants by level of health literacy (n = 988)

From: Health literacy among older adults is associated with their 10-years’ cognitive functioning and decline - the Doetinchem Cohort Study

  Health literacy   
High (81.8%) Low (18.2%) Total p
Age (years) 64.9 66.8 65.3 .015
Male (%) 47.4 45.0 47.0 .56
(Very) low-educated (%) 26.3 54.3 31.5 <.001a
Cognitive functioning (z-scores)
 Memory 0.09 −0.38 0.00 <.001
 Information processing speed 0.09 −0.39 0.00 <.001
 Mental flexibility 0.10 −0.47 0.00 <.001
 Global cognitive functioning 0.10 −0.39 0.01 <.001
  1. p-values are based on chi-square tests and independent samples t-tests. Percentages of missing data were low (all percentages< 3.2%)
  2. ap-value is based on five levels of education