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Table 3 Example of multimorbidity pattern: neuropsychiatric pattern considering observed/expected ratio in one cluster across men aged 65–79 years

From: Multimorbidity patterns in the elderly: a prospective cohort study with cluster analysis

Neuropsychiatric pattern 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Number of persons in the cluster n = 5956 n = 5644 n = 5080 n = 4483 n = 3819 n = 3274
Patients stable in the pattern, n(%) 5956a (100) 5013a (84.2) 4205a (70.6) 3757a (63.1) 3214a (54.0) 2741a (46.0)
ICPC2 Diagnosis Prevb (%) O/E rc Prevb (%) O/E rc Prevb (%) O/E rc Prevb (%) O/E rc Prevb (%) O/E rc Prevb (%) O/E rc
K86 Hypertension, uncomplicated 67.3 0.99 70.0 1.03 71.0 1.05 68.9 1.02 68.1 1.02 66.2 0.99
T93 Lipid disorder 54.5 1.10 58.6 1.17 60.6 1.20 59.9 1.18 60.3 1.18 58.7 1.15
Y85 Benign prostatic hypertrophy 45.7 1.10 43.9 1.05 42.4 1.01 42.4 1.02 42.9 1.03 44.5 1.08
T90 Diabetes, non-insulin dependent 37.8 1.23 42.5 1.39 45.5 1.49 43.2 1.43 42.1 1.40 38.2 1.28
K90 Stroke/cerebrovascular accident 34.9 4.31 35.4 4.56 35.5 4.73 35.0 4.86 35.3 5.11 35.5 5.34
P76 Depressive disorder 34.1 3.11 32.1 2.95 30.4 2.83 31.4 2.94 31.9 3.04 32.3 3.19
P70 Dementia 28.2 6.56 24.3 6.24 22.2 6.32 22.2 6.84 21.5 7.52 21.7 8.73
F92 Cataract 23.8 1.11 24.1 1.14 24.3 1.16 23.4 1.14 23.7 1.20 21.2 1.13
K76 Ischaemic heart disease without angina 21.5 2.12 24.0 2.42 24.4 2.52 24.4 2.57 22.5 2.44 20.0 2.23
K92 Atherosclerosis/peripheral vascular disease 19.6 2.16 23.4 2.63 25.2 2.92 23.7 2.83 22.6 2.78 20.3 2.60
K91 Cerebrovascular disease 19.4 5.84 20.1 6.08 20.9 6.46 20.8 6.57 21.4 6.90 21.2 7.07
N87 Parkinsonism 17.3 6.74 15.0 6.14 13.6 5.88 13.6 6.12 13.9 6.66 14.2 7.10
K75 Acute myocardial infarction 13.5 2.06 15.8 2.47 15.6 2.50 15.8 2.62 14.9 2.52 12.8 2.28
N99 Neurological disease, other 13.5 5.08 13.0 4.96 12.8 4.98 13.3 5.24 13.9 5.65 14.7 6.22
P71 Organic psychosis, other 13.5 6.13 12.3 5.77 11.7 5.66 11.4 5.76 12.0 6.35 12.6 6.99
K89 Transient cerebral ischaemia 11.1 3.58 10.6 3.52 10.3 3.54 9.8 3.50 9.7 3.63 9.0 3.62
K74 Ischaemic heart disease with angina 10.3 2.35 11.1 2.58 11.3 2.71 11.9 2.93 11.1 2.79 9.7 2.50
N88 Epilepsy 8.2 6.13 7.4 5.61 7.1 5.43 7.8 6.06 8.5 6.69 9.1 7.33
A04 Weakness/tiredness. General 6.4 2.63 6.1 2.50 6.0 2.53 5.7 2.51 5.9 2.83 5.7 3.13
B81 Anaemia. Vit B12/folate deficiency 4.0 2.63 3.9 2.65 3.9 2.79 3.1 2.39 2.8 2.20 2.6 2.12
B82 Anaemia. other/unspecified 14.5 2.01 14.8 2.13 13.7 2.08
F83 Retinopathy 6.5 2.13 7.4 2.45 6.6 2.17 6.4 2.09
N94 Peripheral neuritis/neuropathy 6.2 2.07 6.5 2.22 6.6 2.25 6.5 2.28 5.7 2.07
U99 Urinary disease. Other 20.4 1.22 20.3 1.24
  1. aPeople who stayed in the same cluster throughout the period of study
  2. bPrev: prevalence
  3. cO/E r: observed/expected ratio. Italic numbers indicate O/E r ≥ 2