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Table 2 Example of multimorbidity pattern: neuropsychiatric pattern considering observed/expected ratio in one cluster across women aged 65–79 years

From: Multimorbidity patterns in the elderly: a prospective cohort study with cluster analysis

Neuropsychiatric pattern 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Number of persons in the cluster n = 8242 n = 7493 n = 6770 n = 6042 n = 5360 n = 4688
Persons stable in the pattern. n(%) 8242a (100) 7210a (87.5) 6297a (76.4) 5386a (65.4) 4536a (55.0) 3503a (42.5)
ICPC2 Diagnoses Prevb (%) O/E rc Prevb (%) O/E rc Prevb (%) O/E rc Prevb (%) O/E rc Prevb (%) O/E rc Prevb (%) O/E rc
K86 Hypertension, uncomplicated 70.4 1.02 69.8 1.02 68.7 1.01 68.6 1.03 68.6 1.04 70.8 1.09
T93 Lipid disorder 67.6 1.17 68.4 1.18 68.1 1.17 67.9 1.16 68.4 1.17 70.6 1.21
P76 Depressive disorder 53.5 1.96 53.7 1.97 53.1 1.95 53.4 1.97 51.3 1.90 49.2 1.86
L95 Osteoporosis 39.5 1.21 39.9 1.22 40.0 1.23 39.3 1.22 39.2 1.24 39.2 1.27
P70 Dementia 32.4 5.98 30.8 6.31 30.1 6.79 27.9 7.05 25.4 7.33 21.0 6.94
L91 Osteoarthritis. other 31.8 1.18 31.1 1.16 30.1 1.13 30.4 1.16 29.5 1.14 29.3 1.15
T90 Diabetes. non-insulin dependent 31.0 1.38 30.9 1.40 30.6 1.40 32.8 1.52 33.7 1.60 37.4 1.81
F92 Cataract 29.4 1.15 29.2 1.16 29.1 1.18 29.2 1.22 28.2 1.23 26.4 1.22
K90 Stroke/cerebrovascular accident 23.5 4.81 23.1 4.94 22.4 5.02 21.5 5.11 20.2 5.08 16.9 4.50
P71 Organic psychosis, other 16.0 5.72 16.2 6.06 16.0 6.25 15.8 6.46 15.5 6.61 14.6 6.66
K76 Ischaemic heart disease without angina 13.9 4.27 13.9 4.47 13.6 4.57 14.2 5.04 15.4 5.68 17.9 7.00
K91 Cerebrovascular disease 12.9 6.05 12.5 6.11 12.4 6.23 12.4 6.33 12.4 6.55 11.5 6.36
N87 Parkinsonism 12.8 6.62 11.9 6.51 12.2 7.00 11.6 7.12 11.7 7.47 11.1 7.72
N99 Neurological disease, other 11.6 4.63 11.9 4.85 11.8 4.88 11.8 5.00 11.0 4.78 10.7 4.86
K92 Atherosclerosis/ peripheral vascular disease 9.6 3.08 9.6 3.17 9.6 3.30 9.6 3.45 9.4 3.47 11.4 4.36
K89 Transient cerebral ischaemia 9.3 3.67 9.1 3.74 8.6 3.69 8.7 3.90 8.0 3.77 6.9 3.45
K74 Ischaemic heart disease with angina 8.7 3.84 8.9 3.97 8.6 4.03 9.0 4.48 9.1 4.81 11.4 6.54
K75 Acute myocardial infarction 7.9 4.79 8.0 5.11 7.7 5.16 7.8 5.60 8.7 6.53 9.6 7.61
N88 Epilepsy 6.4 5.83 6.5 6.08 6.9 6.45 6.6 6.27 6.4 6.28
B81 Anaemia. Vit B12/folate deficiency 4.0 2.83 3.7 2.74 3.6 2.78 3.5 2.86 3.5 3.09 2.9 2.80
F83 Retinopathy 5.5 2.12 5.9 2.32 7.2 2.87 7.2 2.96 9.8 4.13
N94 Peripheral neuritis/neuropathy 5.3 2.15 5.5 2.28 7.0 2.98
T82 Obesity 21.1 0.72 21.8 0.74 23.0 0.79
B82 Anaemia. other/unspecified 13.1 2.09 13.9 2.46
F84 Macular degeneration 3.2 2.24
  1. aPeople who stay in the same cluster during the period of study
  2. bPrev: prevalence
  3. cO/E r: observed/expected ratio. Italic numbers indicate O/E r ≥ 2