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Table 1 Descriptive characteristics of adults age 65 or older with dementia, by health sector

From: Antipsychotics and dementia in Canada: a retrospective cross-sectional study of four health sectors

  Sector
Characteristic HC ALC CCC LTC
Mean Age (SDa) 84.3 (7.0) 84.4 (7.0) 84.5 (7.1) 85.8 (7.2)
Male 53.6% (21777) 52.9% (3958) 45.8% (1978) 30.1% (27331)
Selected Diagnoses
 Hypertension N/A N/A 60.5% (2613) 58.4% (52782)
 Anxiety disorder N/A N/A 9.8% (423) 8.6% (7806)
 Depression N/A N/A 23.1% (997) 30.9% (28078)
 Bipolar Disorder N/A N/A 1.1% (49) 1.5% (1350)
 Arthritis N/A N/A 31.6% (1366) 39.4% (35609)
 Diabetes 22.3% (9080) 25.7% (1922) 27.5% (1187) 22.7% (20651)
 Other Cardiovascular 70.2% (28554) 77.7% (5812) 25.3% (1094) 14.8% (13387)
Any psychiatric condition 40.9% (16639) 44.1% (3297) 49.8% (2152) 55.1% (50067)
Cognitive Performance Scaleb
Moderate to Severe Impairment 43.3% (17619) 70.8% (5291) 76.2% (4318) 77.9% (70758)
Activities of Daily Living Scalec
- Mean (SD) 3.1 (3.9) 7.9 (4.5) 11.0 (4.3) 9.5 (4.6)
CHESS Scaled - Mean (SD) 1.5 (1.2) 2.2 (1.1) 2.0 (1.5) 0.9 (1.1)
Aggressive Behavior Scale
(ABS)e – Mean (SD) 0.5 (1.0) 0.7 (1.4) 1.5 (2.4) 1.7 (2.4)
Mean ABS Score for those where ABS >0 2.0 (1.3) 2.2 (1.6) 3.3 (2.7) 3.2 (2.4)
Behavior and Psychotic Symptoms:
 None 70.2% (28554) 61.9% (4554) 50.4% (2174) 46.4% (42185)
 Behavior 18.7% (7598) 26.6% (1989) 34.5% (1491) 47.3% (42967)
 Psychotic 6.2% (2508) 6.1% (459) 4.6% (198) 1.7% (1553)
 Both 4.9% (1990) 6.4% (475) 10.5% (455) 4.6% (4141)
  1. aStandard Deviation
  2. bThe Cognitive Performance Scale is categorical and not normally distributed. A score of 3 or more is indicative of moderate to very severely impaired cognition
  3. cThe Activities of Daily Living Scale ranges from 0 to 16 with higher scores indicating more impairment of self-sufficiency in ADL performance
  4. dThe Changes in Health, End Stage Disease, Signs and Symptoms (CHESS) Scale ranges from 0 to 6 with higher scores indicating greater health instability and medical complexity
  5. eThe Aggressive Behaviour Scale, available in the data used for the CCC and LTC, ranges from 0 to 12 with higher scores indicating a greater number and frequency of behaviors in the 7 days prior to assessment. A modified version of the scale ranging from 0 to 8 was calculated for the HC and ALC data since the items used to calculate the scale reflect behaviour in the prior 3 days