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Table 2 Mean baseline and 6-month scores for cognitive function and brain MRI and the mean within group changes and net between groups differences for the change over time

From: Feasibility of a multi-modal exercise program on cognition in older adults with Type 2 diabetes – a pilot randomised controlled trial

Outcome ART group Control Group Between-group differencea
Baseline 6-months Change Baseline 6-months Change
Mean (SE) Mean (SE) Mean (95% CI) Mean (SE) Mean (SE) Mean (95%CI) Mean (95% CI)
Cognitive global score 0.06 0.11 0.20 0.11 0.14 0.02,0.27 −0.06 0.12 −0.08 0.12 −0.01 −0.14,0.12 0.16 −0.02, 0.34
 RCF copy 27.6 0.9 27.4 0.9 −0.2 −1.8, 1.5 26.2 0.9 25.9 0.9 −0.3 −2.03,1.4 0.2 −2.1, 2.6
 RCF delay 14.8 1.0 16.0 1.0 1.3 −0.2, 2.8 13.9 1.0 15.5 1.00 1.6 0.03, 3.1 −0.3 −2.5, 1.8
 Stroop C-D 16.7 1.8 12.9 1.9 −3.8 −7.1, −0.5 20.1 1.9 18.3 1.9 −1.8 −5.1, 1.6 −2.1 −6.7, 2.6
 Trails B-A 40.2 4.5 31.5 4.7 −8.7 −17.9,0.5 38.2 4.7 33.8 4.8 −4.3 −13.8,5.1 −4.4 −17.7, 9.0
 DSC 58.6 2.6 60.8 2.6 2.2 0.2, 4.2 56.1 2.7 56.1 2.7 0.0 −2.1,2.1 2.3 −0.6, 5.2
 Digit span 19.2 0.7 18.2 0.7 −1.0 −1.9,-0.1 19.9 0.7 20.6 0.7 0.7 −0.2,1.6 −1.7 −3.0, −0.5
 Hopkins I 26.1 0.9 26.8 0.9 0.7 −0.9,2.2 27.0 0.9 27.3 1.0 0.3 0.-1.3,1.9 0.4 −1.9, 2.7
 Hopkins D 9.4 0.4 9.5 0.5 0.1 −0.7,0.9 9.0 0.5 9.2 0.5 0.2 −0.6, 1.0 −0.1 −1.2, 1.0
 Hopkins R 10.7 0.2 10.5 0.2 −0.2 −0.7,0.4 10.7 0.2 10.1 0.2 −0.6 −1.1,-0.0 0.5 −0.3, 1.2
 COWAT word 40.7 2.5 43.7 2.5 3.1 0.4,5.7 38.3 2.6 39.7 2.6 1.4 −1.3,4.1 1.7 −2.0, 5.4
 COWAT Category 21.0 0.9 20.1 0.9 −0.9 −2.6,0.8 18.7 1.0 19.3 1.0 0.6 −1.1,2.4 −1.5 −3.9, 1.0
MRI brain
 Total brain 1128.5 28.6 1130.1 28.6 1.6 −2.3,5.5 1176.14 28.55 1175.7 28.6 −0.5 −4.4,3.4 1.9 −3.7,7.4
 White matter 742.2 34.7 741.1 34.7 −1.1 −9.9,7.7 814.46 34.66 808.7 34.7 −5.8 −14.6,3.1 4.3 −8.4,17.0
 C-thickness 3.8 0.1 3.8 0.1 0.0 −0.1,1.1 3.43 0.13 3.5 0.1 0.1 −0.0,0.2 −0.0 −0.2,0.1
 Hippocampal 6.9 0.1 7.0 0.1 0.10 −0.01,0.20 7.2 0.14 7.1 0.1 −0.02 −0.12,0.08 0.13 −0.03, 0.29
 White FA 0.408 0.004 0.412 0.004 0.002 −0.002,0.006 0.406 0.004 0.399 .005 −0.007 −0.012,-0.003 0.009 0.003, 0.016
 White MD 0.001 0.000 0.001 0.000 −0.000 −0.000,0.000 0.001 0.000 0.001 0.000 −0.000 −0.000,0.000 −0.000 0.000,0.000
  1. RCF Rey Complex Figure, DSC digit symbol coding, Hopkins (I-immediate, D delay, R recall), COWAT Controlled Oral Word Association Test, C-thickness cortical thickness, FA fractional anisotrophy, MD mean diffusion, Stroop and Trails:higher scores poorer performance
  2. aadjusted for age, sex and education (brain measures also adjusted for intracranial volume)