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Table 1 Participant characteristics

From: Preliminary evaluation of prototype footwear and insoles to optimise balance and gait in older people

Age, mean (SD) years 74.4 (5.6)
Height, mean (SD) cm 158.9 (5.77)
Weight, mean (SD) kg 75.5 (12.8)
Body mass index, mean (SD) kg/m2 29.9 (4.8)
Major medical conditions
 Heart disease 10 (33.3)
 Diabetes 4 (13.3)
 Stroke 3 (10.0)
 Osteoarthritis 24 (80.0)
 High blood pressure 18 (60.0)
 Peripheral vascular disease 2 (6.7)
Short Form-12 Version 2
 Role – physical, mean (SD) 44.4 (9.5)
 Role – mental, mean (SD) 54.2 (8.6)
Incidental and Planned Exercise Questionnaire total, mean (SD) hours/week 19.8 (14.8)
QuickScreen falls risk factors
 At least one falls risk factor 27 (90.0)
  Fallen in past 12 months 7 (23.3)
  Use of 4 or more medications 16 (53.3)
  Use of psychotropic medications 16 (53.3)
  Impaired visual acuity 15 (50.0)
  Impaired peripheral sensation 6 (20.0)
  Failed near tandem stance test 9 (30.0)
  Failed alternate step test 12 (40.0)
  Failed sit-to-stand test 10 (33.3)
 Total falls risk score, mean (SD)a 3.3 (3.0)
Falls Efficacy Scale International, mean (SD)b 25.2 (7.4)
Foot problems
 Hallux valgus 14 (46.7)
 Lesser toe deformity 20 (66.7)
 Plantar keratotic lesions 20 (66.7)
 Keratotic lesions on toes 12 (40.0)
Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index
 Pain subscale, mean (SD)c 2.8 (2.6)
 Functional limitation subscale, mean (SD)d 4.7 (4.0)
  1. Values are n (%) unless otherwise stated
  2. ascore ranges from 1 to 8.6; higher score indicates greater risk
  3. bscore ranges from 16 to 64; higher score indicates greater fear (low 16–19, moderate 20–27, high 28–64)
  4. cRasch-transformed score ranges from 0 to 10; higher score indicates greater impairment
  5. dRasch-transformed score ranges from 0 to 20; higher score indicates greater impairment