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Table 4 Quality appraisal for observational studies according to the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP)

From: Efficacy and safety of metformin in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in older adults: a systematic review for the development of recommendations to reduce potentially inappropriate prescribing

Source Type of study 1. Focused issue 2. Appropriate method 3. Recruitment 4. Selection of controls 5. Exposure measured 6. Outcome measured 7. Confounding factors identified 8. Confounding design/analysis 9. Follow up complete 10. Follow up long 11. Results of this study 12. How precise results/risk estimate 13. Believe results 14. Results be applied 15. Results fit evidence
Evans 2010 [32] Population-based cohort study Y Y Y NA Y Y N N Y U    Y Y U
Hung 2013 [33] population-based retrospective cohort study Y U Y NA Y N N Y U U    Y Y Y
Inzucchi 2005 [34] Retrospective cohort study Y Y Y NA N Y Y Y Y N    U Y U
Lapane 2015 [37] Retrospective cohort study Y Y Y NA Y N Y Y U N    Y Y Y
MacDonald 2010 [38] Case-control study Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y    Y Y Y
Masoudi 2005 [39] Retrospective cohort Y Y Y NA Y N Y Y U U    U Y U
Moore 2013 [40] Cross sectional study Y Y N N N Y U Y NA NA    U U N
Roumie 2012 [41] Retrospective cohort study Y Y U NA U U Y Y U U    U Y U
Roussel 2010 [42] Prospective, observational registry Y Y N NA U Y U Y Y U    Y Y Y
Solomon 2009 [44] Retrospective cohort Y Y Y NA Y Y Y Y Y N    U Y Y
Tzoulaki 2009 [45] Retrospective cohort study Y Y Y NA U Y Y Y Y Y    U Y Y
  1. Y yes; N no; U unclear; NA not applicable. Items 11 and 12 are part of the findings in Table 2