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Table 3 Estimates of Coefficients for Residential Status in Mixed Effect Model on Cognitive Performance, CLHLS 2002–2014

From: The impact of residential status on cognitive decline among older adults in China: Results from a longitudinal study

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5 Model 6
Agea −0.21 (0.01)*** −0.18 (0.02)*** −0.20 (0.01)*** −0.18 (0.01)*** −0.11 (0.01)*** −0.07 (0.01)***
Residential status (Ref: urban residents)
 Rural-to-urban residents 0.06 (0.17) 0.31 (0.17) −0.05 (0.17) 0.26 (0.17) −0.01 (0.17) 0.50 (0.17)**
 Rural residents −0.78 (0.16)*** 0.38 (0.17) * −0.75 (0.16)*** 0.08 (0.16) −0.68 (0.16)*** 0.42 (0.16)**
 Urban-to-rural residents −0.47 (0.38) −0.04 (0.38) −0.45 (0.38) −0.09 (0.38) −0.15 (0.37) 0.31 (0.36)
Age * Residential status (Ref: Age *urban residents)
 Age *Rural-to-urban residents −0.06 (0.01)*** −0.06 (0.01)*** −0.06 (0.01)*** −0.06 (0.01)*** −0.06 (0.01)*** −0.07 (0.01)***
 Age *Rural residents −0.03 (0.01)** −0.04 (0.01)** −0.03 (0.01)** −0.06 (0.01)*** −0.05 (0.01)*** −0.07 (0.01)***
 Age *Urban-to-rural residents −0.01 (0.03) −0.01 (0.03) −0.01 (0.03) −0.03 (0.03) −0.05 (0.02) −0.05 (0.02)
Demographic characteristics
 Male 1.25 (0.06)*** 0.58 (0.07)*** 1.12 (0.06)*** 1.03 (0.07)*** 0.91 (0.06)*** 0.28 (0.07)**
 Han ethnicity −0.18 (0.13) −0.22 (0.13) −0.18 (0.13) −0.28 (0.13)* 0.07 (0.12) −0.01 (0.12)
Socioeconomic Factors
 Education (Ref: no education)       
  1–6 years of education   1.12 (0.07)***     0.94 (0.07)***
  7+ years of education   1.49 (0.11)***     1.23 (0.11)***
 Prof./admin. Occupation   0.22 (0.11)*     0.11 (0.10)
 Economic independence   0.66 (0.07)***     0.35 (0.06)***
 Childhood SES   0.20 (0.04)***     0.16 (0.04)***
Family Support Factors
 Married    0.50 (0.07)***    0.25 (0.06)***
 High proximity to offspring    −0.09 (0.07)    0.10 (0.07)
Behavioral Factors
 Current smoking     0.30 (0.07)***   0.06 (0.07)
 Exercises regularly     1.34 (0.06)***   0.82 (0.06)***
 Consumes vegetables     1.90 (0.09)***   1.53 (0.08)***
 Consumes fish     0.64 (0.06)***   0.45 (0.05)***
Health Status
 Any chronic condition      −0.08 (0.05) −0.19 (0.05)* **
 Any ADL disability      −3.96 (0.08)*** −3.79 (0.08)***
 Any IADL disability      −1.90 (0.06)*** −1.62 (0.06)***
Attrition (Ref: survivors)
 Loss to follow-up −0.41 (0.08)*** −0.47 (0.08)*** −0.40 (0.08)*** −0.43 (0.08)*** −0.21 (0.08)*** −0.26 (0.08)***
 Deceased −2.49 (0.08)*** −2.45 (0.08)*** −2.47 (0.08)*** −2.32 (0.08)*** −1.73 (0.07)*** −1.62 (0.07)***
Goodness of fit
 AIC 248,552 243,980 248,485 247,188 244,433 239,279
 BIC 248,681 244,151 248,631 247,317 244,588 239,493
  1. Abbreviations: AIC Akaike Information Criterion, BIC Bayesian information criterion
  2. Model 1: Adjusted for demographic characteristics; Model 2: Model 1 + Socioeconomic factors; Model 3: Model 1 + Family support; Model 4: Model 1 + Behaviroal factors; Model 5: Model 1 + Health status; Model 6: full model.
  3. acentered at age 65; Standard errors within parentheses; * p-value < 0.05; ** p-value < 0.01; *** p-value < 0.001