Skip to main content

Table 2 Baseline Descriptive Characteristics of the CLHLS Study Sample

From: The impact of residential status on cognitive decline among older adults in China: Results from a longitudinal study

   Residence  
Variables Total
(n = 17,333)
Urban
(n = 2325)
Rural to Urban
(n = 5059)
Rural
(n = 9578)
Urban to Rural
(n = 371)
P value
Demographic characteristics
 Age, mean (SD) 77.9 (7.87) 77.3 (8.10) 78.3 (7.80) 77.5 (7.94) 77.8 (7.84) <0.001
 Male,% 51.40 51.74 49.99 82.05 52.02 0.122
 Han ethnicity,% 93.69 96.00 95.77 91.98 94.88 <0.001
Socioeconomic Factors
 Education,%
  No education 52.28 31.14 49.38 59.11 47.98 <0.001
  6 years of education 34.41 35.27 35.93 33.44 33.15
  7+ years of education 13.31 33.59 14.69 7.44 18.87
 Prof./admin. Occupation,% 10.62 25.55 15.81 4.20 11.86 <0.001
 Economic independence,% 39.96 68.00 48.73 28.43 42.32 <0.001
 Childhood SES, mean (SD) 1.73 (0.77) 1.80 (0.85) 1.72 (0.78) 1.73 (0.74) 1.86 (0.76) <0.001
Family Support Factors
 Married,% 50.22 53.68 49.26 49.79 52.56 0.002
 High proximity to children,% 83.29 70.67 77.98 89.13 83.83 <0.001
Behavioral Factors
 Current smoking,% 24.09 21.29 21.82 26.02 22.64 <0.001
 Exercises regularly,% 34.86 55.61 46.67 23.07 48.25 <0.001
 Consumes vegetables,% 89.35 91.57 90.16 88.36 90.16 <0.001
 Consumes fish,% 30.65 41.20 35.11 25.42 38.54 <0.001
Health Status
 Any chronic condition,% 60.53 69.25 64.18 56.59 57.95 <0.001
 Any ADL disability,% 12.10 15.14 15.04 9.95 8.63 <0.001
 Any IADL disability,% 49.91 46.62 50.56 50.29 51.75 0.007
MMSE, mean (SD) 25.7 (5.93) 26.85 (5.09) 25.87 (5.90) 25.26 (6.10) 26.30 (5.68) <0.001
Died during study period,% 41.12 32.56 44.57 41.12 47.71 <0.001
<0.001
Loss to follow-up,% 28.60 45.42 35.86 19.25 33.42
  1. Abbreviations: SD standard deviation