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Table 1 Participant characteristics at baseline by cognitive status

From: Use of the EMPOWER brochure to deprescribe sedative-hypnotic drugs in older adults with mild cognitive impairment

Characteristics All (N = 261) MCI (n = 122) Normal cognition (n = 139) p-value
Female, n (%) 187 (71.6) 90 (73.8) 97 (69.8) .494
Age years, Mean (SD) 74.4 (6.3) 75.3 (6.7) 73.7 (5.8) .08
Education – college or university degree, n (%) 67 (25.6) 21 (17.2) 46 (33.1) .003*
Living alone, n (%) 137 (52.4) 75 (61.5) 62 (44.6) .01*
MOCAb, Mean score (SD) 24.5 (2.4) 23.3 (1.4) 27.4 (1.3) .000*
General health status (poor or fair), n (%) 88 (32.8) 49 (32.8) 44 (31.7) .895
Comorbidities, Mean (SD) 7.4 (2.5) 7.2 (2.4) 7.6 (2.7) .335
Self-reported indication for benzodiazepine:
 Insomniac, n (%) 159 (60.9) 73 (59.8) 86 (61.9) .417
 Anxietyc, n (%) 126 (48.3) 70 (57.4) 56 (40.3) .006*
 Duration of benzodiazepine use (years), Mean (SD) 10.7 (8.8) 10.3 (8.0) 10.9 (9.4) .548
 Previous attempts at cessation, n (%) 119 (45.6) 52 (42.6) 67 (48.2) .321
 Successful attempts, n (%) 41 (15.7) 14 (11.5) 27 (19.4) .123
Benzodiazepine typed, n (%):
 Short-acting 70 (26.8) 36 (29.5) 34 (24.5) .358
 Intermediate acting 180 (70.0) 81 (66.4) 99 (71.2) .400
 Long acting 11 (4.2) 5 (4.1) 6 (4.3) .888
 Benzodiazepine Equivalent dosea, Mean (SD) 1.24 (.85) 1.27 (.75) 1.25 (.82) .571
 Number of medications at baseline 9.86 (3.7) 9.72 (3.8) 9.98 (3.6) .574
 Baseline Self-efficacy in tapering benzodiazepine (/100), Mean (SD) 38.1 (35.6) 31.2 (34.8) 44.1 (35.4) .004*
  1. *Level of significance, p < 0.05
  2. aBenzodiazepine dose in mg of lorazepam equivalents/day
  3. bMOCA: The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (scale 0–30)
  4. cBased on medical diagnosis but self-reported by patients
  5. dShort-acting = half-life <6 h, Intermediate acting = half-life 6–20 h, Long-acting = half-life >20 h
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