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Table 2 Bivariate relations between the use of physical restraints and characteristics of residents (n = 920)a

From: The use of physical restraints in long-term care in Spain: a multi-center cross-sectional study

  Not restrained (n = 123) Restrained (n = 797) p-value
Age (years) 76.10 (12.52) 80.70 (10.73) <0.001d
Length of stay (years) 6.36 (6.38) 3.88 (4.6) <0.001d
Gender
 Women 55 (44.71%) 526 (66.08%) <0.001e
 Men 68 (55.29%) 271 (33.92%)
Mobilityb 8 (±2.0) 5 (±2.0) <0.001e
Fall previous 6 month
 Yes 32 (26.0%) 124 (15.5%) <0.004e
 No 91 (74.0%) 673 (84.5%)
Dependence of ADL
 Total 3 (2.44%) 433 (54.39%) <0.001f
 Severe 9 (7.31%) 166 (20.85%)
 Moderate 33 (26.83%) 123 (15.32%)
 Mild 62 (50.40%) 73 (9.17%)
 Independent 16 (13.01%) 2 (0.25%)
Cognitive impairmentc
 Severe 15 (15.46%) 299 (45.69%) <0.001f
 Moderate 28 (28.86%) 185 (28.15%)
 Mild 17 (17.52%) 87 (13.38%)
 Intact 35 (35.05%) 56 (8.30%)
 Non-assessable 3 (3.09%) 28 (4.46%)
  1. aNot cluster-adjusted. bMedian and interquartile range. c n = 25 missings not restrained and 143 restrained. dWilcoxon test. eChi-square test. fKruskal-Wallis test