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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of elderly patients admitted for acute decompensated heart failure

From: Long-term mortality in older patients discharged after acute decompensated heart failure: a prospective cohort study

Characteristics Total
  n = 478
Socio-demographic characteristics
 Age >85 years 222 (46)
 Male sex 155 (32.4)
 Living arrangements (n = 220/244)  
 Lives alone 386 (83.2)
 Institutionalised (16.8)
 Current or former smoker (n = 211/242) 110 (24.3)
Medical status
 Co-morbidities (past or current):  
 Arteritis (n = 207/234) 53 (12.0)
 Myocardial infarction (n = 220/251) 97 (20.6)
 Stroke (n = 218/245) 51 (11.0)
 Anaemia (n = 209/233) 116 (26.2)
 Hypertensiona (n = 223/254) 354 (74.2)
 Cardiac arrhythmia (n = 215/245) 313 (68.0)
 Diabetes (n = 218/253) 84 (17.8)
 Systolic blood pressure, mmHg (n = 210/249) 146 [128–165]
 Number of drugs 7 [5–9]
  ≥ 5 drugs per day 382 (80.0)
 Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (n = 100/102)  
  < 24 (good quality of life) 54 (26.7)
 [24–45] (intermediate quality of life) 97 (48.0)
  > 45 (poor quality of life) 51 (25.2)
Laboratory parameters at admission
 Sodium, mmol/L (n = 282/188) 138 [135–141]
 Haemoglobin, g/dL (n = 212/247) 12.3 (11.1–13.6)
 Creatinine clearance, mL/minuteb (n = 218/250)  
  ≥ 60 213 (45.5)
 ]30–60[ 196 (41.9)
  ≤ 30 59 (12.6)
Nutritional parameters
 Body mass index, Kg/m2 (n = 146/166)  
  < 19 10 (3.2)
 [19–21 [ 18 (5.8)
 [21–23 [ 39 (12.5)
  ≥ 23 245 (78.5)
 MNA-SF score (n = 69/81)  
  ≥ 12 (well-nourished) 58 (38.7)
 [8–12] (at risk) 73 (48.7)
  < 8 (malnourished) 19 (12.7)
 Recent weight loss >3 Kg (<3 months) (n = 201/226) 64 (15.0)
 Non-solid nutrition (blended or minced) (n = 215/238) 82 (18.1)
Function and mobility
 Number of impaired ADL items (n = 201/226) 2 [0–5]
 ADL score <12, (n = 201/226) 268 (62.8)
 Timed get-up-and-go >20 sc, (n = 178/210) 296 (76.2)
Cognition
 MMSE ≤17, severe impairment (n = 221/251) 97 (20.6)
Depression  
 GDS score ≥5 (n = 143/148) 142 (48.8)
  1. Quantitative variables are expressed as median [25th - 75th centiles] and categorical variables as N (%)
  2. (n= /) indicates the number of patients in each group in case of missing data
  3. MNA-SF, Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form; ADL, activities of daily living scale; MMSE, Mini Mental State Examination; GDS, Geriatric Depression Scale
  4. aHypertension was defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg or treatment for hypertension
  5. bCreatinine clearance was calculated using the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula, glomerular filtration rate (mL/min/1.73 m2) = 186.3 × [creatinine (μmol/L) /88.4] -1.154 × [Age (years)]-0.203 × 0.742 (if female) × 1.21 (if black)
  6. cTimed Get-Up-and-Go test >20 s or patient unable to perform the test