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Table 5 Fear of falling and general health

From: The efficacy of treadmill training with and without projected visual context for improving walking ability and reducing fall incidence and fear of falling in older adults with fall-related hip fracture: a randomized controlled trial

Outcome (n: AT, CT, UPT) INTERVENTION Difference among groups Mixed RM ANOVA T0, T1, T2
  AT CT UPT P value Effect size (ηp2) Time effect Group effect Time × Group
FES-I (20–80)
 T0 (19,17,21) 44.68 ± 12.32 44.71 ± 13.00 46.52 ± 14.78 0.885a 0.005 F (1.6)=4.001 p=0.031 ηp2=0.077 F (2)=0.562 p=0.574 ηp2=0.023 F (3.2)=1.424 p=0.241 ηp2=0.056
 T1 (19,17,21) 44.16 ± 15.86 36.24 ± 13.70 39.95 ± 15.06 0.212b 0.057
 T2 (17,17,17) 41.94 ± 14.29 37.94 ± 14.37 39.24 ± 17.20 0.681b 0.016
 T3 (8,12,14) 31.63 ± 15.73 28.58 ± 5.92 27.50 ± 6.53 0.500b 0.045
VAS (0–100)
 T0 (19,17,21) 61.89 ± 18.23 67.85 ± 18.88 60.57 ± 20.94 0.491a 0.026 F (1.6)=21.945 p<0.001 ηp2=0.314 F (2)=0.968 p=0.387 ηp2=0.039 F (3.2)=0.272 p=0.859 ηp2=0.011
 T1 (18,17,21) 80.83 ± 16.02 80.62 ± 15.88 76.29 ± 16.39 0.661b 0.016
 T2 (17,17,17) 80.82 ± 18.40 80.94 ± 14.81 76.26 ± 16.46 0.805b 0.009
 T3 (8,12,13) 78.13 ± 17.31 82.88 ± 11.39 77.65 ± 12.24 0.675b 0.027
HOOS-Q (0–100)
 T2 (17,17,17) 54.78 ± 30.10 57.35 ± 23.41 50.37 ± 20.78 0.715a 0.014 n: 8, 12, 12 F (1)=19.876 p<0.001 ηp2=0.407 n: 8, 12, 12 F (2)=0.642 p=0.534 ηp2=0.042 n: 8, 12, 12 F (2)=1.840 p=0.177 ηp2=0.113
 T3 (8,12,14) 76.56 ± 23.80 70.31 ± 23.10 78.57 ± 19.26 0.619a 0.030
TMTa (s)
 T0 (19, 17, 21) 98.0 (41.0–262.0) 100.0 (47.2–164.0) 86.0 (27.0–300.0) 0.870c - F (1.6)=6.38 p=0.005 ηp2=0.120 F (2)=0.081 p=0.922 ηp2=0.003 F (3.1)=2.296 p=0.083 ηp2=0.089
 T1 (19, 17, 21) 88.8 ± 42.1 83.4 ± 38.2 86.3 ± 58.6 0.614b 0.018
 T2 (16, 17, 17) 78.8 ± 39.2 97.8 ± 71.1 74.2 ± 49.3 0.117b 0.089
 T3 (8, 12, 14) 56.8 ± 14.9 80.9 ± 40.9 84.1 ± 40.5 0.615b 0.032
TMTb (s)
 T0 (18, 17, 21) 205.0 (100.0–300.0) 252.0 (82.6–300.0) 232.0 (80.0–300.0) 0.747c - F (2)=3.564 p=0.032 ηp2=0.072 F (2)=0.251 p=0.779 ηp2=0.011 F (4)=0.266 p=0.899 ηp2=0.011
 T1 (18, 17, 21) 217.4 ± 87.9 211.9 ± 78.4 200.6 ± 88.0 0.479b 0.028
 T2 (15, 17, 17) 198.1 ± 90.0 207.0 ± 82.8 191.5 ± 96.2 0.731b 0.014
 T3 (7, 12, 14) 200.6 ± 78.2 202.8 ± 90.7 207.3 ± 94.8 0.246b 0.092
  1. Measures related to fear of falling and general health in the adaptability treadmill (AT) group, conventional treadmill (CT) group and usual physical therapy (UPT) group at baseline (T0), directly after (T1), four weeks after (T2) and 12 months (T3) after the intervention
  2. P values for group differences were obtained using
  3. aOne-Way ANOVA
  4. bANCOVA with baseline performance as covariate
  5. cKruskal-Wallis test