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Table 3 Crude and adjusted hazard ratios of all-cause mortality for tertiles of maximum grip strength in the KORA-Age Study (2008 – 2011)

From: Gender differences in the association between grip strength and mortality in older adults: results from the KORA-age study

  Grip strength Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Men
  Low 5.49 (2.45–12.3) 2.55 (1.04–6.22) 2.37 (0.97–5.75)
  Moderate 1.66 (0.65–4.21) 1.12 (0.43–2.91) 0.97 (0.36–2.57)
  High 1 1 1
Women
  Low 20.96 (2.56–154) 7.24 (0.94–56) 5.23 (0.67–40.9)
  Moderate 5.17 (0.66–40.8) 2.87 (0.36–23) 2.17 (0.26–17.7)
  High 1 1 1
Total study population
  Low 7.20 (3.45–14.99) 3.11 (1.42–6.85) 3.33 (1.53–7.22)
  Moderate 1.96 (0.87–4.43) 1.31 (0.57–3.01) 1.42 (0.61–3.28)
  High 1 1 1
  1. Model 1: unadjusted. Model 2: adjusted for age (in the total study population, adjusted for both age and gender). Model 3: further adjusted for age, nutritional status: tertiles 1/2 vs. 3, physical inactivity, number of prescribed drugs, lung diseases, CVD, cancer (in the total study population, also adjusted for gender). Grip strength: low: men ≤30/women ≤18 (kg), moderate: men >30– ≤ 38/women >18– ≤ 24 (kg) and high: men >38/women >24 (kg)