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Table 1 Characteristics of German National Health Interview and Examination Survey participants 1997–1999 (GNHIES 98) and 2008–2011(DEGS1) included in this analysis by sex and age groups

From: Changes in physical functioning among men and women aged 50–79 years in Germany: an analysis of National Health Interview and Examination Surveys, 1997–1999 and 2008–2011

  Men Women
50–64 years 65–79 years 50–64 years 65–79 years
GNHIES
98
DEGS1 p GNHIES
98
DEGS1 p GNHIES
98
DEGS1 p GNHIES
98
DEGS1 p
n = 945 n = 929 n = 429 n = 856 n = 975 n = 1076 n = 535 n = 871
%/mean %/mean %/mean %/mean %/mean %/mean %/mean %/mean
Age, years (mean ± SE) 56.4 ± .14 56.4 ± .15 .936 70.9 ± .17 71.0 ± .16 .655 56.6 ± .14 56.4 ± .15 .417 71.5 ± .17 71.3 ± .16 .374
Household size
 Living alone 6.6 13.5 <.001 12.5 9.6 .180 14.6 15.7 .531 41.6 32.2 .004
 Living with others 93.4 86.5   87.5 90.4   85.4 84.3   58.4 67.8  
Educational level(CASMIN)
 Low 60.4 44.9 <.001 70.2 58.1 .005 63.4 40.9 <.001 82.1 69.2 <.001
 Medium 22.1 37.9   15.5 23.1   28.0 48.0   14.6 24.2  
 High 17.5 17.2   14.3 18.9   8.5 11.1   3.3 6.6  
Body mass index (BMI)kg/m2 (mean ± SE) 28.2 ± .15 28.2 ± .18 .773 27.8 ± .19 28.5 ± .19 .011 28.1 ± .22 27.4 ± .24 .275 28.6 ± .27 28.8 ± .21 .622
 BMI <25a 18.0 20.4 .339 21.2 17.1 .004 31.4 36.3 .092 23.4 24.8 .336
 BMI ≥ 25 to <30 54.3 50.6   58.2 51.5   39.5 35.0   42.4 38.1  
 BMI ≥ 30 27.7 28.9   20.6 31.5   29.2 28.7   34.2 37.2  
Smoking status
 Current 28.7 28.0 .003 17.6 10.1 <.001 17.8 24.9 <.001 10.5 8.2 <.001
 Former 37.7 45.4   58.2 51.9   15.2 33.0   10.9 20.0  
 Never 33.6 26.6   24.2 37.9   67.1 42.1   78.6 71.7  
Sports activity level
 No sports (0 h/ week) 52.8 38.1 <.001 68.8 43.2 <.001 54.0 32.1 <.001 75.5 39.3 <.001
 Regular sport (<2 h/week) 30.4 38.0   16.5 33.8   30.8 43.2   17.9 42.3  
 Regular sport (≥2 h/week) 16.8 24.0   14.7 23.0   15.1 24.8   6.6 18.4  
Alcohol consumption
 No alcohol (0 g/day) 12.3 7.3 <.001 11.0 7.1 .125 26.4 16.8 <.001 39.4 21.3 <.001
 Moderate drinking (<20/10 g/day, men/women) 56.8 72.7   64.9 67.9   58.8 66.4   52.8 68.8  
 Risky drinking(≥20/10 g/day, men/women) 30.9 20.0   24.1 25.0   14.8 16.8   7.8 9.9  
Chronic diseases
 Ischaemic heart disease 10.3 9.3 .590 29.4 27.9 .648 5.7 3.2 .022 19.7 14.2 .031
 Chronic heart failure 3.9 3.2 .515 14.3 13.5 .755 3.1 2.7 .663 16.3 11.6 .084
 Stroke 1.7 2.5 .357 7.3 7.6 .882 .7 .5 .534 6.1 5.6 .714
 Hypertension 33.9 47.6 <.001 48.2 68.0 <.001 33.6 41.4 .001 55.5 68.7 <.001
 Dyslipidaemia 39.4 41.4 .499 33.9 51.7 <.001 34.9 37.4 .379 43.1 57.5 <.001
 Diabetes mellitus 10.8 9.7 .514 13.0 20.0 .014 5.6 5.6 .991 16.2 18.5 .375
 Cancer (any type) 3.4 4.4 .334 9.9 15.4 .015 7.5 10.4 .049 7.3 14.3 <.001
 Asthma 4.8 5.1 .796 7.1 4.4 .046 6.3 7.3 .428 3.8 8.8 .004
 Osteoporosis 2.5 2.5 .998 1.9 3.4 .209 10.3 5.7 .003 20.6 22.7 .457
Number of chronic diseases
 0 37.1 31.6 .197 20.3 11.4 <.001 35.1 31.1 .282 16.4 9.8 .018
 1 31.6 32.7   33.2 25.3   34.1 38.4   25.2 23.1  
 2 18.4 22.1   20.9 29.9   21.8 21.0   27.4 29.8  
 ≥3 12.9 13.6   25.6 33.4   9.0 9.6   30.9 37.3  
Multimorbidity
 ≥ 2 chronic diseases 31.3 35.7 .105 46.6 63.3 <.001 30.8 30.5 .897 58.3 67.1 .010
Polypharmacy
 ≥5 prescribed medications 8.2 10.7 .158 26.3 34.1 .010 12.4 12.6 .900 30.2 37.0 .038
  1. All percentages and means were weighted and standardized to the population of 31.12.2010
  2. p values refer to differences between GNHIES98 and DEGS1 (Second-order Rao-Scott chi-square tests for categorical variables and general linear models for continuous variables)
  3. aIncludes 20 persons with BMI <18.5 kg/m2
  4. Missing values: Household size (men 50–64 years n = 7, men 65–79 years n = 3; women 50–64 years n = 9, women 65–79 years n = 13), Educational status (9, 6; 7, 8), Body mass index (7, 8; 11, 26), Smoking status (2, 1; 3, 6), Physical activity level (11, 10; 12, 10), Alcohol consumption (23, 14; 16, 20), Ischaemic Heart Disease (11, 19; 22, 28), Chronic heart failure (21, 38; 29, 41), Stroke (6, 9; 10, 8), Hypertension (13, 7; 12, 5), Hyperlipidaemia (29, 28; 21, 24), Diabetes (8, 4; 13, 7), Cancer (6, 6; 11, 5), Asthma (7, 9; 14, 10), Osteoporosis (14, 11; 22, 24), Multimorbidity/No. of chronic conditions (67, 86; 74, 103 ), Polypharmacy (6, 3; 8, 3)
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