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Table 3 Baseline demographic and cognitive data for monolingual and bilingual participants underwent longitudinal assessment and whose adjusted 3MS and SEVLT score were above the 20th percentile at baseline

From: Bilingualism in older Mexican-American immigrants is associated with higher scores on cognitive screening

  Monolingual Bilingual t(373)/χ2(375)
N 150 225
Age 73.0 (6.2) 73.4 (6.1) −0.63
Gender (% male) 37.3% 48.9% 4.87*
Years of education 2.7 (2.9) 6.3 (4.5) −8.47*
3MS (unadjusted) 83.8 (6.8) 88.7 (6.2) −7.12*
3MS follow-up in years 5.6 (2.6) 5.8 (2.6) −0.95
SEVLT Trials 1–5 34.6 (8.6) 34.9 (9.3) −0.37
SEVLT Delayed Recall (unadjusted) 8.7 (2.3) 8.7 (2.4) 0.16
SEVLT follow-up in yearsa 5.4 (2.6) 5.7 (2.5) −1.44
Baseline CES-D 11.7 (10.0) 8.9 (8.8) 2.62*
Baseline Monthly Household Incomeb χ2(4,366) = 35.76*
 <$1000 70.1% 41.0%  
 $1000–$1499 20.1% 30.2%
 $1500–$1999 6.9% 13.5%
 $2000–$2499 2.8% 7.2%
 ≥$2500 0.0% 8.1%
  1. Parentheses represent standard deviation; *p < 0.05; aLongitudinal SEVLT data was missing for 3 participants in the Bilingual group; bBaseline monthly household income data was missing for 6 participants in the Monolingual group and 3 participants in the Bilingual group